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/MissionCockpit/tags/V0.2.0/map/map.pl
0,0 → 1,105
###############################################################################
#
# map.pl - Map definition
#
## Copyright (C) 2009 Rainer Walther (rainerwalther-mail@web.de)
#
# Creative Commons Lizenz mit den Zusaetzen (by, nc, sa)
#
# Es ist Ihnen gestattet:
# * das Werk vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen
# * Abwandlungen bzw. Bearbeitungen des Inhaltes anfertigen
#
# Zu den folgenden Bedingungen:
# * Namensnennung.
# Sie müssen den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
# * Keine kommerzielle Nutzung.
# Dieses Werk darf nicht für kommerzielle Zwecke verwendet werden.
# * Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen.
# Wenn Sie den lizenzierten Inhalt bearbeiten oder in anderer Weise umgestalten,
# verändern oder als Grundlage für einen anderen Inhalt verwenden,
# dürfen Sie den neu entstandenen Inhalt nur unter Verwendung von Lizenzbedingungen
# weitergeben, die mit denen dieses Lizenzvertrages identisch oder vergleichbar sind.
#
# Im Falle einer Verbreitung müssen Sie anderen die Lizenzbedingungen, unter welche dieses
# Werk fällt, mitteilen. Am Einfachsten ist es, einen Link auf diese Seite einzubinden.
#
# Jede der vorgenannten Bedingungen kann aufgehoben werden, sofern Sie die Einwilligung
# des Rechteinhabers dazu erhalten.
#
# Diese Lizenz lässt die Urheberpersönlichkeitsrechte unberührt.
#
# Weitere Details zur Lizenzbestimmung gibt es hier:
# Kurzform: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/de/
# Komplett: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/de/legalcode
#
###############################################################################
##
# 2009-03-06 0.0.1 rw created
# 2009-04-01 0.1.0 rw RC1
#
###############################################################################
 
$Version{'map/map.pl'} = "0.1.0 - 2009-04-01";
 
%Maps =
(
Hemhofen => {
'Name' => "Hemhofen",
'Size_X' => '800',
'Size_Y' => '600',
'File' => 'hemhofen-800.gif',
'P1_x' => '66', # calibration P1, P2
'P1_y' => '62',
'P2_x' => '778',
'P2_y' => '488',
'P1_Lat' => '49.685333',
'P1_Lon' => '10.950134',
'P2_Lat' => '49.682949',
'P2_Lon' => '10.944580',
 
'Border' => [ 555, 430, # airfield border
516, 555,
258, 555,
100, 300,
580, 260,
530, 94,
627, 130,
735, 300,
680, 400,
757, 470,
720, 515,
575, 420,
],
},
 
 
Default => {
'Name' => "Default",
'Size_X' => '800',
'Size_Y' => '600',
'File' => 'default-800.gif',
 
'P1_x' => '71', # calibration P1, P2
'P1_y' => '472',
'P2_x' => '500',
'P2_y' => '103',
'P1_Lat' => '48.856253',
'P1_Lon' => '2.3500000',
'P2_Lat' => '54.090153',
'P2_Lon' => '12.133249',
},
);
 
# Die verwendete Karte
my $MapDefault = $Cfg->{'map'}->{'MapDefault'};
$Maps{'Current'} = $Maps{$MapDefault};
 
#
# Todo: Karte automatisch anhand der aktuellen GPS Position auswählen
#
 
1;
 
__END__
/MissionCockpit/tags/V0.2.0/perl/lib/Thread/Queue.pm
0,0 → 1,481
package Thread::Queue;
 
use strict;
use warnings;
 
our $VERSION = '2.11';
 
use threads::shared 1.21;
use Scalar::Util 1.10 qw(looks_like_number blessed reftype refaddr);
 
# Carp errors from threads::shared calls should complain about caller
our @CARP_NOT = ("threads::shared");
 
# Predeclarations for internal functions
my ($validate_count, $validate_index);
 
# Create a new queue possibly pre-populated with items
sub new
{
my $class = shift;
my @queue :shared = map { shared_clone($_) } @_;
return bless(\@queue, $class);
}
 
# Add items to the tail of a queue
sub enqueue
{
my $queue = shift;
lock(@$queue);
push(@$queue, map { shared_clone($_) } @_)
and cond_signal(@$queue);
}
 
# Return a count of the number of items on a queue
sub pending
{
my $queue = shift;
lock(@$queue);
return scalar(@$queue);
}
 
# Return 1 or more items from the head of a queue, blocking if needed
sub dequeue
{
my $queue = shift;
lock(@$queue);
 
my $count = @_ ? $validate_count->(shift) : 1;
 
# Wait for requisite number of items
cond_wait(@$queue) until (@$queue >= $count);
cond_signal(@$queue) if (@$queue > $count);
 
# Return single item
return shift(@$queue) if ($count == 1);
 
# Return multiple items
my @items;
push(@items, shift(@$queue)) for (1..$count);
return @items;
}
 
# Return items from the head of a queue with no blocking
sub dequeue_nb
{
my $queue = shift;
lock(@$queue);
 
my $count = @_ ? $validate_count->(shift) : 1;
 
# Return single item
return shift(@$queue) if ($count == 1);
 
# Return multiple items
my @items;
for (1..$count) {
last if (! @$queue);
push(@items, shift(@$queue));
}
return @items;
}
 
# Return an item without removing it from a queue
sub peek
{
my $queue = shift;
lock(@$queue);
my $index = @_ ? $validate_index->(shift) : 0;
return $$queue[$index];
}
 
# Insert items anywhere into a queue
sub insert
{
my $queue = shift;
lock(@$queue);
 
my $index = $validate_index->(shift);
 
return if (! @_); # Nothing to insert
 
# Support negative indices
if ($index < 0) {
$index += @$queue;
if ($index < 0) {
$index = 0;
}
}
 
# Dequeue items from $index onward
my @tmp;
while (@$queue > $index) {
unshift(@tmp, pop(@$queue))
}
 
# Add new items to the queue
push(@$queue, map { shared_clone($_) } @_);
 
# Add previous items back onto the queue
push(@$queue, @tmp);
 
# Soup's up
cond_signal(@$queue);
}
 
# Remove items from anywhere in a queue
sub extract
{
my $queue = shift;
lock(@$queue);
 
my $index = @_ ? $validate_index->(shift) : 0;
my $count = @_ ? $validate_count->(shift) : 1;
 
# Support negative indices
if ($index < 0) {
$index += @$queue;
if ($index < 0) {
$count += $index;
return if ($count <= 0); # Beyond the head of the queue
return $queue->dequeue_nb($count); # Extract from the head
}
}
 
# Dequeue items from $index+$count onward
my @tmp;
while (@$queue > ($index+$count)) {
unshift(@tmp, pop(@$queue))
}
 
# Extract desired items
my @items;
unshift(@items, pop(@$queue)) while (@$queue > $index);
 
# Add back any removed items
push(@$queue, @tmp);
 
# Return single item
return $items[0] if ($count == 1);
 
# Return multiple items
return @items;
}
 
### Internal Functions ###
 
# Check value of the requested index
$validate_index = sub {
my $index = shift;
 
if (! defined($index) ||
! looks_like_number($index) ||
(int($index) != $index))
{
require Carp;
my ($method) = (caller(1))[3];
$method =~ s/Thread::Queue:://;
$index = 'undef' if (! defined($index));
Carp::croak("Invalid 'index' argument ($index) to '$method' method");
}
 
return $index;
};
 
# Check value of the requested count
$validate_count = sub {
my $count = shift;
 
if (! defined($count) ||
! looks_like_number($count) ||
(int($count) != $count) ||
($count < 1))
{
require Carp;
my ($method) = (caller(1))[3];
$method =~ s/Thread::Queue:://;
$count = 'undef' if (! defined($count));
Carp::croak("Invalid 'count' argument ($count) to '$method' method");
}
 
return $count;
};
 
1;
 
=head1 NAME
 
Thread::Queue - Thread-safe queues
 
=head1 VERSION
 
This document describes Thread::Queue version 2.11
 
=head1 SYNOPSIS
 
use strict;
use warnings;
 
use threads;
use Thread::Queue;
 
my $q = Thread::Queue->new(); # A new empty queue
 
# Worker thread
my $thr = threads->create(sub {
while (my $item = $q->dequeue()) {
# Do work on $item
}
})->detach();
 
# Send work to the thread
$q->enqueue($item1, ...);
 
 
# Count of items in the queue
my $left = $q->pending();
 
# Non-blocking dequeue
if (defined(my $item = $q->dequeue_nb())) {
# Work on $item
}
 
# Get the second item in the queue without dequeuing anything
my $item = $q->peek(1);
 
# Insert two items into the queue just behind the head
$q->insert(1, $item1, $item2);
 
# Extract the last two items on the queue
my ($item1, $item2) = $q->extract(-2, 2);
 
=head1 DESCRIPTION
 
This module provides thread-safe FIFO queues that can be accessed safely by
any number of threads.
 
Any data types supported by L<threads::shared> can be passed via queues:
 
=over
 
=item Ordinary scalars
 
=item Array refs
 
=item Hash refs
 
=item Scalar refs
 
=item Objects based on the above
 
=back
 
Ordinary scalars are added to queues as they are.
 
If not already thread-shared, the other complex data types will be cloned
(recursively, if needed, and including any C<bless>ings and read-only
settings) into thread-shared structures before being placed onto a queue.
 
For example, the following would cause L<Thread::Queue> to create a empty,
shared array reference via C<&shared([])>, copy the elements 'foo', 'bar'
and 'baz' from C<@ary> into it, and then place that shared reference onto
the queue:
 
my @ary = qw/foo bar baz/;
$q->enqueue(\@ary);
 
However, for the following, the items are already shared, so their references
are added directly to the queue, and no cloning takes place:
 
my @ary :shared = qw/foo bar baz/;
$q->enqueue(\@ary);
 
my $obj = &shared({});
$$obj{'foo'} = 'bar';
$$obj{'qux'} = 99;
bless($obj, 'My::Class');
$q->enqueue($obj);
 
See L</"LIMITATIONS"> for caveats related to passing objects via queues.
 
=head1 QUEUE CREATION
 
=over
 
=item ->new()
 
Creates a new empty queue.
 
=item ->new(LIST)
 
Creates a new queue pre-populated with the provided list of items.
 
=back
 
=head1 BASIC METHODS
 
The following methods deal with queues on a FIFO basis.
 
=over
 
=item ->enqueue(LIST)
 
Adds a list of items onto the end of the queue.
 
=item ->dequeue()
 
=item ->dequeue(COUNT)
 
Removes the requested number of items (default is 1) from the head of the
queue, and returns them. If the queue contains fewer than the requested
number of items, then the thread will be blocked until the requisite number
of items are available (i.e., until other threads <enqueue> more items).
 
=item ->dequeue_nb()
 
=item ->dequeue_nb(COUNT)
 
Removes the requested number of items (default is 1) from the head of the
queue, and returns them. If the queue contains fewer than the requested
number of items, then it immediately (i.e., non-blocking) returns whatever
items there are on the queue. If the queue is empty, then C<undef> is
returned.
 
=item ->pending()
 
Returns the number of items still in the queue.
 
=back
 
=head1 ADVANCED METHODS
 
The following methods can be used to manipulate items anywhere in a queue.
 
To prevent the contents of a queue from being modified by another thread
while it is being examined and/or changed, L<lock|threads::shared/"lock
VARIABLE"> the queue inside a local block:
 
{
lock($q); # Keep other threads from changing the queue's contents
my $item = $q->peek();
if ($item ...) {
...
}
}
# Queue is now unlocked
 
=over
 
=item ->peek()
 
=item ->peek(INDEX)
 
Returns an item from the queue without dequeuing anything. Defaults to the
the head of queue (at index position 0) if no index is specified. Negative
index values are supported as with L<arrays|perldata/"Subscripts"> (i.e., -1
is the end of the queue, -2 is next to last, and so on).
 
If no items exists at the specified index (i.e., the queue is empty, or the
index is beyond the number of items on the queue), then C<undef> is returned.
 
Remember, the returned item is not removed from the queue, so manipulating a
C<peek>ed at reference affects the item on the queue.
 
=item ->insert(INDEX, LIST)
 
Adds the list of items to the queue at the specified index position (0
is the head of the list). Any existing items at and beyond that position are
pushed back past the newly added items:
 
$q->enqueue(1, 2, 3, 4);
$q->insert(1, qw/foo bar/);
# Queue now contains: 1, foo, bar, 2, 3, 4
 
Specifying an index position greater than the number of items in the queue
just adds the list to the end.
 
Negative index positions are supported:
 
$q->enqueue(1, 2, 3, 4);
$q->insert(-2, qw/foo bar/);
# Queue now contains: 1, 2, foo, bar, 3, 4
 
Specifying a negative index position greater than the number of items in the
queue adds the list to the head of the queue.
 
=item ->extract()
 
=item ->extract(INDEX)
 
=item ->extract(INDEX, COUNT)
 
Removes and returns the specified number of items (defaults to 1) from the
specified index position in the queue (0 is the head of the queue). When
called with no arguments, C<extract> operates the same as C<dequeue_nb>.
 
This method is non-blocking, and will return only as many items as are
available to fulfill the request:
 
$q->enqueue(1, 2, 3, 4);
my $item = $q->extract(2) # Returns 3
# Queue now contains: 1, 2, 4
my @items = $q->extract(1, 3) # Returns (2, 4)
# Queue now contains: 1
 
Specifying an index position greater than the number of items in the
queue results in C<undef> or an empty list being returned.
 
$q->enqueue('foo');
my $nada = $q->extract(3) # Returns undef
my @nada = $q->extract(1, 3) # Returns ()
 
Negative index positions are supported. Specifying a negative index position
greater than the number of items in the queue may return items from the head
of the queue (similar to C<dequeue_nb>) if the count overlaps the head of the
queue from the specified position (i.e. if queue size + index + count is
greater than zero):
 
$q->enqueue(qw/foo bar baz/);
my @nada = $q->extract(-6, 2); # Returns () - (3+(-6)+2) <= 0
my @some = $q->extract(-6, 4); # Returns (foo) - (3+(-6)+4) > 0
# Queue now contains: bar, baz
my @rest = $q->extract(-3, 4); # Returns (bar, baz) - (2+(-3)+4) > 0
 
=back
 
=head1 NOTES
 
Queues created by L<Thread::Queue> can be used in both threaded and
non-threaded applications.
 
=head1 LIMITATIONS
 
Passing objects on queues may not work if the objects' classes do not support
sharing. See L<threads::shared/"BUGS AND LIMITATIONS"> for more.
 
Passing array/hash refs that contain objects may not work for Perl prior to
5.10.0.
 
=head1 SEE ALSO
 
Thread::Queue Discussion Forum on CPAN:
L<http://www.cpanforum.com/dist/Thread-Queue>
 
Annotated POD for Thread::Queue:
L<http://annocpan.org/~JDHEDDEN/Thread-Queue-2.11/lib/Thread/Queue.pm>
 
Source repository:
L<http://code.google.com/p/thread-queue/>
 
L<threads>, L<threads::shared>
 
=head1 MAINTAINER
 
Jerry D. Hedden, S<E<lt>jdhedden AT cpan DOT orgE<gt>>
 
=head1 LICENSE
 
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as Perl itself.
 
=cut
/MissionCockpit/tags/V0.2.0/perl/lib/XML/Simple.pm
0,0 → 1,3284
# $Id: Simple.pm,v 1.40 2007/08/15 10:36:48 grantm Exp $
 
package XML::Simple;
 
=head1 NAME
 
XML::Simple - Easy API to maintain XML (esp config files)
 
=head1 SYNOPSIS
 
use XML::Simple;
 
my $ref = XMLin([<xml file or string>] [, <options>]);
 
my $xml = XMLout($hashref [, <options>]);
 
Or the object oriented way:
 
require XML::Simple;
 
my $xs = XML::Simple->new(options);
 
my $ref = $xs->XMLin([<xml file or string>] [, <options>]);
 
my $xml = $xs->XMLout($hashref [, <options>]);
 
(or see L<"SAX SUPPORT"> for 'the SAX way').
 
To catch common errors:
 
use XML::Simple qw(:strict);
 
(see L<"STRICT MODE"> for more details).
 
=cut
 
# See after __END__ for more POD documentation
 
 
# Load essentials here, other modules loaded on demand later
 
use strict;
use Carp;
require Exporter;
 
 
##############################################################################
# Define some constants
#
 
use vars qw($VERSION @ISA @EXPORT @EXPORT_OK $PREFERRED_PARSER);
 
@ISA = qw(Exporter);
@EXPORT = qw(XMLin XMLout);
@EXPORT_OK = qw(xml_in xml_out);
$VERSION = '2.18';
$PREFERRED_PARSER = undef;
 
my $StrictMode = 0;
 
my @KnownOptIn = qw(keyattr keeproot forcecontent contentkey noattr
searchpath forcearray cache suppressempty parseropts
grouptags nsexpand datahandler varattr variables
normalisespace normalizespace valueattr);
 
my @KnownOptOut = qw(keyattr keeproot contentkey noattr
rootname xmldecl outputfile noescape suppressempty
grouptags nsexpand handler noindent attrindent nosort
valueattr numericescape);
 
my @DefKeyAttr = qw(name key id);
my $DefRootName = qq(opt);
my $DefContentKey = qq(content);
my $DefXmlDecl = qq(<?xml version='1.0' standalone='yes'?>);
 
my $xmlns_ns = 'http://www.w3.org/2000/xmlns/';
my $bad_def_ns_jcn = '{' . $xmlns_ns . '}'; # LibXML::SAX workaround
 
 
##############################################################################
# Globals for use by caching routines
#
 
my %MemShareCache = ();
my %MemCopyCache = ();
 
 
##############################################################################
# Wrapper for Exporter - handles ':strict'
#
 
sub import {
# Handle the :strict tag
$StrictMode = 1 if grep(/^:strict$/, @_);
 
# Pass everything else to Exporter.pm
 
@_ = grep(!/^:strict$/, @_);
goto &Exporter::import;
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Constructor for optional object interface.
#
 
sub new {
my $class = shift;
 
if(@_ % 2) {
croak "Default options must be name=>value pairs (odd number supplied)";
}
 
my %known_opt;
@known_opt{@KnownOptIn, @KnownOptOut} = (undef) x 100;
 
my %raw_opt = @_;
my %def_opt;
while(my($key, $val) = each %raw_opt) {
my $lkey = lc($key);
$lkey =~ s/_//g;
croak "Unrecognised option: $key" unless(exists($known_opt{$lkey}));
$def_opt{$lkey} = $val;
}
my $self = { def_opt => \%def_opt };
 
return(bless($self, $class));
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Sub: _get_object()
#
# Helper routine called from XMLin() and XMLout() to create an object if none
# was provided. Note, this routine does mess with the caller's @_ array.
#
 
sub _get_object {
my $self;
if($_[0] and UNIVERSAL::isa($_[0], 'XML::Simple')) {
$self = shift;
}
else {
$self = XML::Simple->new();
}
return $self;
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Sub/Method: XMLin()
#
# Exported routine for slurping XML into a hashref - see pod for info.
#
# May be called as object method or as a plain function.
#
# Expects one arg for the source XML, optionally followed by a number of
# name => value option pairs.
#
 
sub XMLin {
my $self = &_get_object; # note, @_ is passed implicitly
 
my $target = shift;
 
 
# Work out whether to parse a string, a file or a filehandle
 
if(not defined $target) {
return $self->parse_file(undef, @_);
}
 
elsif($target eq '-') {
local($/) = undef;
$target = <STDIN>;
return $self->parse_string(\$target, @_);
}
 
elsif(my $type = ref($target)) {
if($type eq 'SCALAR') {
return $self->parse_string($target, @_);
}
else {
return $self->parse_fh($target, @_);
}
}
 
elsif($target =~ m{<.*?>}s) {
return $self->parse_string(\$target, @_);
}
 
else {
return $self->parse_file($target, @_);
}
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Sub/Method: parse_file()
#
# Same as XMLin, but only parses from a named file.
#
 
sub parse_file {
my $self = &_get_object; # note, @_ is passed implicitly
 
my $filename = shift;
 
$self->handle_options('in', @_);
 
$filename = $self->default_config_file if not defined $filename;
 
$filename = $self->find_xml_file($filename, @{$self->{opt}->{searchpath}});
 
# Check cache for previous parse
 
if($self->{opt}->{cache}) {
foreach my $scheme (@{$self->{opt}->{cache}}) {
my $method = 'cache_read_' . $scheme;
my $opt = $self->$method($filename);
return($opt) if($opt);
}
}
 
my $ref = $self->build_simple_tree($filename, undef);
 
if($self->{opt}->{cache}) {
my $method = 'cache_write_' . $self->{opt}->{cache}->[0];
$self->$method($ref, $filename);
}
 
return $ref;
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Sub/Method: parse_fh()
#
# Same as XMLin, but only parses from a filehandle.
#
 
sub parse_fh {
my $self = &_get_object; # note, @_ is passed implicitly
 
my $fh = shift;
croak "Can't use " . (defined $fh ? qq{string ("$fh")} : 'undef') .
" as a filehandle" unless ref $fh;
 
$self->handle_options('in', @_);
 
return $self->build_simple_tree(undef, $fh);
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Sub/Method: parse_string()
#
# Same as XMLin, but only parses from a string or a reference to a string.
#
 
sub parse_string {
my $self = &_get_object; # note, @_ is passed implicitly
 
my $string = shift;
 
$self->handle_options('in', @_);
 
return $self->build_simple_tree(undef, ref $string ? $string : \$string);
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: default_config_file()
#
# Returns the name of the XML file to parse if no filename (or XML string)
# was provided.
#
 
sub default_config_file {
my $self = shift;
 
require File::Basename;
 
my($basename, $script_dir, $ext) = File::Basename::fileparse($0, '\.[^\.]+');
 
# Add script directory to searchpath
if($script_dir) {
unshift(@{$self->{opt}->{searchpath}}, $script_dir);
}
 
return $basename . '.xml';
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: build_simple_tree()
#
# Builds a 'tree' data structure as provided by XML::Parser and then
# 'simplifies' it as specified by the various options in effect.
#
 
sub build_simple_tree {
my $self = shift;
 
my $tree = $self->build_tree(@_);
 
return $self->{opt}->{keeproot}
? $self->collapse({}, @$tree)
: $self->collapse(@{$tree->[1]});
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: build_tree()
#
# This routine will be called if there is no suitable pre-parsed tree in a
# cache. It parses the XML and returns an XML::Parser 'Tree' style data
# structure (summarised in the comments for the collapse() routine below).
#
# XML::Simple requires the services of another module that knows how to parse
# XML. If XML::SAX is installed, the default SAX parser will be used,
# otherwise XML::Parser will be used.
#
# This routine expects to be passed a filename as argument 1 or a 'string' as
# argument 2. The 'string' might be a string of XML (passed by reference to
# save memory) or it might be a reference to an IO::Handle. (This
# non-intuitive mess results in part from the way XML::Parser works but that's
# really no excuse).
#
 
sub build_tree {
my $self = shift;
my $filename = shift;
my $string = shift;
 
 
my $preferred_parser = $PREFERRED_PARSER;
unless(defined($preferred_parser)) {
$preferred_parser = $ENV{XML_SIMPLE_PREFERRED_PARSER} || '';
}
if($preferred_parser eq 'XML::Parser') {
return($self->build_tree_xml_parser($filename, $string));
}
 
eval { require XML::SAX; }; # We didn't need it until now
if($@) { # No XML::SAX - fall back to XML::Parser
if($preferred_parser) { # unless a SAX parser was expressly requested
croak "XMLin() could not load XML::SAX";
}
return($self->build_tree_xml_parser($filename, $string));
}
 
$XML::SAX::ParserPackage = $preferred_parser if($preferred_parser);
 
my $sp = XML::SAX::ParserFactory->parser(Handler => $self);
$self->{nocollapse} = 1;
my($tree);
if($filename) {
$tree = $sp->parse_uri($filename);
}
else {
if(ref($string) && ref($string) ne 'SCALAR') {
$tree = $sp->parse_file($string);
}
else {
$tree = $sp->parse_string($$string);
}
}
 
return($tree);
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: build_tree_xml_parser()
#
# This routine will be called if XML::SAX is not installed, or if XML::Parser
# was specifically requested. It takes the same arguments as build_tree() and
# returns the same data structure (XML::Parser 'Tree' style).
#
 
sub build_tree_xml_parser {
my $self = shift;
my $filename = shift;
my $string = shift;
 
 
eval {
local($^W) = 0; # Suppress warning from Expat.pm re File::Spec::load()
require XML::Parser; # We didn't need it until now
};
if($@) {
croak "XMLin() requires either XML::SAX or XML::Parser";
}
 
if($self->{opt}->{nsexpand}) {
carp "'nsexpand' option requires XML::SAX";
}
 
my $xp = XML::Parser->new(Style => 'Tree', @{$self->{opt}->{parseropts}});
my($tree);
if($filename) {
# $tree = $xp->parsefile($filename); # Changed due to prob w/mod_perl
local(*XML_FILE);
open(XML_FILE, '<', $filename) || croak qq($filename - $!);
$tree = $xp->parse(*XML_FILE);
close(XML_FILE);
}
else {
$tree = $xp->parse($$string);
}
 
return($tree);
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: cache_write_storable()
#
# Wrapper routine for invoking Storable::nstore() to cache a parsed data
# structure.
#
 
sub cache_write_storable {
my($self, $data, $filename) = @_;
 
my $cachefile = $self->storable_filename($filename);
 
require Storable; # We didn't need it until now
 
if ('VMS' eq $^O) {
Storable::nstore($data, $cachefile);
}
else {
# If the following line fails for you, your Storable.pm is old - upgrade
Storable::lock_nstore($data, $cachefile);
}
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: cache_read_storable()
#
# Wrapper routine for invoking Storable::retrieve() to read a cached parsed
# data structure. Only returns cached data if the cache file exists and is
# newer than the source XML file.
#
 
sub cache_read_storable {
my($self, $filename) = @_;
my $cachefile = $self->storable_filename($filename);
 
return unless(-r $cachefile);
return unless((stat($cachefile))[9] > (stat($filename))[9]);
 
require Storable; # We didn't need it until now
if ('VMS' eq $^O) {
return(Storable::retrieve($cachefile));
}
else {
return(Storable::lock_retrieve($cachefile));
}
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: storable_filename()
#
# Translates the supplied source XML filename into a filename for the storable
# cached data. A '.stor' suffix is added after stripping an optional '.xml'
# suffix.
#
 
sub storable_filename {
my($self, $cachefile) = @_;
 
$cachefile =~ s{(\.xml)?$}{.stor};
return $cachefile;
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: cache_write_memshare()
#
# Takes the supplied data structure reference and stores it away in a global
# hash structure.
#
 
sub cache_write_memshare {
my($self, $data, $filename) = @_;
 
$MemShareCache{$filename} = [time(), $data];
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: cache_read_memshare()
#
# Takes a filename and looks in a global hash for a cached parsed version.
#
 
sub cache_read_memshare {
my($self, $filename) = @_;
return unless($MemShareCache{$filename});
return unless($MemShareCache{$filename}->[0] > (stat($filename))[9]);
 
return($MemShareCache{$filename}->[1]);
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: cache_write_memcopy()
#
# Takes the supplied data structure and stores a copy of it in a global hash
# structure.
#
 
sub cache_write_memcopy {
my($self, $data, $filename) = @_;
 
require Storable; # We didn't need it until now
$MemCopyCache{$filename} = [time(), Storable::dclone($data)];
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: cache_read_memcopy()
#
# Takes a filename and looks in a global hash for a cached parsed version.
# Returns a reference to a copy of that data structure.
#
 
sub cache_read_memcopy {
my($self, $filename) = @_;
return unless($MemCopyCache{$filename});
return unless($MemCopyCache{$filename}->[0] > (stat($filename))[9]);
 
return(Storable::dclone($MemCopyCache{$filename}->[1]));
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Sub/Method: XMLout()
#
# Exported routine for 'unslurping' a data structure out to XML.
#
# Expects a reference to a data structure and an optional list of option
# name => value pairs.
#
 
sub XMLout {
my $self = &_get_object; # note, @_ is passed implicitly
 
croak "XMLout() requires at least one argument" unless(@_);
my $ref = shift;
 
$self->handle_options('out', @_);
 
 
# If namespace expansion is set, XML::NamespaceSupport is required
 
if($self->{opt}->{nsexpand}) {
require XML::NamespaceSupport;
$self->{nsup} = XML::NamespaceSupport->new();
$self->{ns_prefix} = 'aaa';
}
 
 
# Wrap top level arrayref in a hash
 
if(UNIVERSAL::isa($ref, 'ARRAY')) {
$ref = { anon => $ref };
}
 
 
# Extract rootname from top level hash if keeproot enabled
 
if($self->{opt}->{keeproot}) {
my(@keys) = keys(%$ref);
if(@keys == 1) {
$ref = $ref->{$keys[0]};
$self->{opt}->{rootname} = $keys[0];
}
}
# Ensure there are no top level attributes if we're not adding root elements
 
elsif($self->{opt}->{rootname} eq '') {
if(UNIVERSAL::isa($ref, 'HASH')) {
my $refsave = $ref;
$ref = {};
foreach (keys(%$refsave)) {
if(ref($refsave->{$_})) {
$ref->{$_} = $refsave->{$_};
}
else {
$ref->{$_} = [ $refsave->{$_} ];
}
}
}
}
 
 
# Encode the hashref and write to file if necessary
 
$self->{_ancestors} = [];
my $xml = $self->value_to_xml($ref, $self->{opt}->{rootname}, '');
delete $self->{_ancestors};
 
if($self->{opt}->{xmldecl}) {
$xml = $self->{opt}->{xmldecl} . "\n" . $xml;
}
 
if($self->{opt}->{outputfile}) {
if(ref($self->{opt}->{outputfile})) {
my $fh = $self->{opt}->{outputfile};
if(UNIVERSAL::isa($fh, 'GLOB') and !UNIVERSAL::can($fh, 'print')) {
eval { require IO::Handle; };
croak $@ if $@;
}
return($fh->print($xml));
}
else {
local(*OUT);
open(OUT, '>', "$self->{opt}->{outputfile}") ||
croak "open($self->{opt}->{outputfile}): $!";
binmode(OUT, ':utf8') if($] >= 5.008);
print OUT $xml || croak "print: $!";
close(OUT);
}
}
elsif($self->{opt}->{handler}) {
require XML::SAX;
my $sp = XML::SAX::ParserFactory->parser(
Handler => $self->{opt}->{handler}
);
return($sp->parse_string($xml));
}
else {
return($xml);
}
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: handle_options()
#
# Helper routine for both XMLin() and XMLout(). Both routines handle their
# first argument and assume all other args are options handled by this routine.
# Saves a hash of options in $self->{opt}.
#
# If default options were passed to the constructor, they will be retrieved
# here and merged with options supplied to the method call.
#
# First argument should be the string 'in' or the string 'out'.
#
# Remaining arguments should be name=>value pairs. Sets up default values
# for options not supplied. Unrecognised options are a fatal error.
#
 
sub handle_options {
my $self = shift;
my $dirn = shift;
 
 
# Determine valid options based on context
 
my %known_opt;
if($dirn eq 'in') {
@known_opt{@KnownOptIn} = @KnownOptIn;
}
else {
@known_opt{@KnownOptOut} = @KnownOptOut;
}
 
 
# Store supplied options in hashref and weed out invalid ones
 
if(@_ % 2) {
croak "Options must be name=>value pairs (odd number supplied)";
}
my %raw_opt = @_;
my $opt = {};
$self->{opt} = $opt;
 
while(my($key, $val) = each %raw_opt) {
my $lkey = lc($key);
$lkey =~ s/_//g;
croak "Unrecognised option: $key" unless($known_opt{$lkey});
$opt->{$lkey} = $val;
}
 
 
# Merge in options passed to constructor
 
foreach (keys(%known_opt)) {
unless(exists($opt->{$_})) {
if(exists($self->{def_opt}->{$_})) {
$opt->{$_} = $self->{def_opt}->{$_};
}
}
}
 
 
# Set sensible defaults if not supplied
if(exists($opt->{rootname})) {
unless(defined($opt->{rootname})) {
$opt->{rootname} = '';
}
}
else {
$opt->{rootname} = $DefRootName;
}
if($opt->{xmldecl} and $opt->{xmldecl} eq '1') {
$opt->{xmldecl} = $DefXmlDecl;
}
 
if(exists($opt->{contentkey})) {
if($opt->{contentkey} =~ m{^-(.*)$}) {
$opt->{contentkey} = $1;
$opt->{collapseagain} = 1;
}
}
else {
$opt->{contentkey} = $DefContentKey;
}
 
unless(exists($opt->{normalisespace})) {
$opt->{normalisespace} = $opt->{normalizespace};
}
$opt->{normalisespace} = 0 unless(defined($opt->{normalisespace}));
 
# Cleanups for values assumed to be arrays later
 
if($opt->{searchpath}) {
unless(ref($opt->{searchpath})) {
$opt->{searchpath} = [ $opt->{searchpath} ];
}
}
else {
$opt->{searchpath} = [ ];
}
 
if($opt->{cache} and !ref($opt->{cache})) {
$opt->{cache} = [ $opt->{cache} ];
}
if($opt->{cache}) {
$_ = lc($_) foreach (@{$opt->{cache}});
foreach my $scheme (@{$opt->{cache}}) {
my $method = 'cache_read_' . $scheme;
croak "Unsupported caching scheme: $scheme"
unless($self->can($method));
}
}
if(exists($opt->{parseropts})) {
if($^W) {
carp "Warning: " .
"'ParserOpts' is deprecated, contact the author if you need it";
}
}
else {
$opt->{parseropts} = [ ];
}
 
# Special cleanup for {forcearray} which could be regex, arrayref or boolean
# or left to default to 0
 
if(exists($opt->{forcearray})) {
if(ref($opt->{forcearray}) eq 'Regexp') {
$opt->{forcearray} = [ $opt->{forcearray} ];
}
 
if(ref($opt->{forcearray}) eq 'ARRAY') {
my @force_list = @{$opt->{forcearray}};
if(@force_list) {
$opt->{forcearray} = {};
foreach my $tag (@force_list) {
if(ref($tag) eq 'Regexp') {
push @{$opt->{forcearray}->{_regex}}, $tag;
}
else {
$opt->{forcearray}->{$tag} = 1;
}
}
}
else {
$opt->{forcearray} = 0;
}
}
else {
$opt->{forcearray} = ( $opt->{forcearray} ? 1 : 0 );
}
}
else {
if($StrictMode and $dirn eq 'in') {
croak "No value specified for 'ForceArray' option in call to XML$dirn()";
}
$opt->{forcearray} = 0;
}
 
 
# Special cleanup for {keyattr} which could be arrayref or hashref or left
# to default to arrayref
 
if(exists($opt->{keyattr})) {
if(ref($opt->{keyattr})) {
if(ref($opt->{keyattr}) eq 'HASH') {
 
# Make a copy so we can mess with it
 
$opt->{keyattr} = { %{$opt->{keyattr}} };
 
# Convert keyattr => { elem => '+attr' }
# to keyattr => { elem => [ 'attr', '+' ] }
 
foreach my $el (keys(%{$opt->{keyattr}})) {
if($opt->{keyattr}->{$el} =~ /^(\+|-)?(.*)$/) {
$opt->{keyattr}->{$el} = [ $2, ($1 ? $1 : '') ];
if($StrictMode and $dirn eq 'in') {
next if($opt->{forcearray} == 1);
next if(ref($opt->{forcearray}) eq 'HASH'
and $opt->{forcearray}->{$el});
croak "<$el> set in KeyAttr but not in ForceArray";
}
}
else {
delete($opt->{keyattr}->{$el}); # Never reached (famous last words?)
}
}
}
else {
if(@{$opt->{keyattr}} == 0) {
delete($opt->{keyattr});
}
}
}
else {
$opt->{keyattr} = [ $opt->{keyattr} ];
}
}
else {
if($StrictMode) {
croak "No value specified for 'KeyAttr' option in call to XML$dirn()";
}
$opt->{keyattr} = [ @DefKeyAttr ];
}
 
 
# Special cleanup for {valueattr} which could be arrayref or hashref
 
if(exists($opt->{valueattr})) {
if(ref($opt->{valueattr}) eq 'ARRAY') {
$opt->{valueattrlist} = {};
$opt->{valueattrlist}->{$_} = 1 foreach(@{ delete $opt->{valueattr} });
}
}
 
# make sure there's nothing weird in {grouptags}
 
if($opt->{grouptags}) {
croak "Illegal value for 'GroupTags' option - expected a hashref"
unless UNIVERSAL::isa($opt->{grouptags}, 'HASH');
 
while(my($key, $val) = each %{$opt->{grouptags}}) {
next if $key ne $val;
croak "Bad value in GroupTags: '$key' => '$val'";
}
}
 
 
# Check the {variables} option is valid and initialise variables hash
 
if($opt->{variables} and !UNIVERSAL::isa($opt->{variables}, 'HASH')) {
croak "Illegal value for 'Variables' option - expected a hashref";
}
 
if($opt->{variables}) {
$self->{_var_values} = { %{$opt->{variables}} };
}
elsif($opt->{varattr}) {
$self->{_var_values} = {};
}
 
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: find_xml_file()
#
# Helper routine for XMLin().
# Takes a filename, and a list of directories, attempts to locate the file in
# the directories listed.
# Returns a full pathname on success; croaks on failure.
#
 
sub find_xml_file {
my $self = shift;
my $file = shift;
my @search_path = @_;
 
 
require File::Basename;
require File::Spec;
 
my($filename, $filedir) = File::Basename::fileparse($file);
 
if($filename ne $file) { # Ignore searchpath if dir component
return($file) if(-e $file);
}
else {
my($path);
foreach $path (@search_path) {
my $fullpath = File::Spec->catfile($path, $file);
return($fullpath) if(-e $fullpath);
}
}
 
# If user did not supply a search path, default to current directory
 
if(!@search_path) {
return($file) if(-e $file);
croak "File does not exist: $file";
}
 
croak "Could not find $file in ", join(':', @search_path);
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: collapse()
#
# Helper routine for XMLin(). This routine really comprises the 'smarts' (or
# value add) of this module.
#
# Takes the parse tree that XML::Parser produced from the supplied XML and
# recurses through it 'collapsing' unnecessary levels of indirection (nested
# arrays etc) to produce a data structure that is easier to work with.
#
# Elements in the original parser tree are represented as an element name
# followed by an arrayref. The first element of the array is a hashref
# containing the attributes. The rest of the array contains a list of any
# nested elements as name+arrayref pairs:
#
# <element name>, [ { <attribute hashref> }, <element name>, [ ... ], ... ]
#
# The special element name '0' (zero) flags text content.
#
# This routine cuts down the noise by discarding any text content consisting of
# only whitespace and then moves the nested elements into the attribute hash
# using the name of the nested element as the hash key and the collapsed
# version of the nested element as the value. Multiple nested elements with
# the same name will initially be represented as an arrayref, but this may be
# 'folded' into a hashref depending on the value of the keyattr option.
#
 
sub collapse {
my $self = shift;
 
 
# Start with the hash of attributes
my $attr = shift;
if($self->{opt}->{noattr}) { # Discard if 'noattr' set
$attr = {};
}
elsif($self->{opt}->{normalisespace} == 2) {
while(my($key, $value) = each %$attr) {
$attr->{$key} = $self->normalise_space($value)
}
}
 
 
# Do variable substitutions
 
if(my $var = $self->{_var_values}) {
while(my($key, $val) = each(%$attr)) {
$val =~ s{\$\{([\w.]+)\}}{ $self->get_var($1) }ge;
$attr->{$key} = $val;
}
}
 
 
# Roll up 'value' attributes (but only if no nested elements)
 
if(!@_ and keys %$attr == 1) {
my($k) = keys %$attr;
if($self->{opt}->{valueattrlist} and $self->{opt}->{valueattrlist}->{$k}) {
return $attr->{$k};
}
}
 
 
# Add any nested elements
 
my($key, $val);
while(@_) {
$key = shift;
$val = shift;
 
if(ref($val)) {
$val = $self->collapse(@$val);
next if(!defined($val) and $self->{opt}->{suppressempty});
}
elsif($key eq '0') {
next if($val =~ m{^\s*$}s); # Skip all whitespace content
 
$val = $self->normalise_space($val)
if($self->{opt}->{normalisespace} == 2);
 
# do variable substitutions
 
if(my $var = $self->{_var_values}) {
$val =~ s{\$\{(\w+)\}}{ $self->get_var($1) }ge;
}
 
# look for variable definitions
 
if(my $var = $self->{opt}->{varattr}) {
if(exists $attr->{$var}) {
$self->set_var($attr->{$var}, $val);
}
}
 
 
# Collapse text content in element with no attributes to a string
 
if(!%$attr and !@_) {
return($self->{opt}->{forcecontent} ?
{ $self->{opt}->{contentkey} => $val } : $val
);
}
$key = $self->{opt}->{contentkey};
}
 
 
# Combine duplicate attributes into arrayref if required
 
if(exists($attr->{$key})) {
if(UNIVERSAL::isa($attr->{$key}, 'ARRAY')) {
push(@{$attr->{$key}}, $val);
}
else {
$attr->{$key} = [ $attr->{$key}, $val ];
}
}
elsif(defined($val) and UNIVERSAL::isa($val, 'ARRAY')) {
$attr->{$key} = [ $val ];
}
else {
if( $key ne $self->{opt}->{contentkey}
and (
($self->{opt}->{forcearray} == 1)
or (
(ref($self->{opt}->{forcearray}) eq 'HASH')
and (
$self->{opt}->{forcearray}->{$key}
or (grep $key =~ $_, @{$self->{opt}->{forcearray}->{_regex}})
)
)
)
) {
$attr->{$key} = [ $val ];
}
else {
$attr->{$key} = $val;
}
}
 
}
 
 
# Turn arrayrefs into hashrefs if key fields present
 
if($self->{opt}->{keyattr}) {
while(($key,$val) = each %$attr) {
if(defined($val) and UNIVERSAL::isa($val, 'ARRAY')) {
$attr->{$key} = $self->array_to_hash($key, $val);
}
}
}
 
 
# disintermediate grouped tags
 
if($self->{opt}->{grouptags}) {
while(my($key, $val) = each(%$attr)) {
next unless(UNIVERSAL::isa($val, 'HASH') and (keys %$val == 1));
next unless(exists($self->{opt}->{grouptags}->{$key}));
 
my($child_key, $child_val) = %$val;
 
if($self->{opt}->{grouptags}->{$key} eq $child_key) {
$attr->{$key}= $child_val;
}
}
}
 
 
# Fold hashes containing a single anonymous array up into just the array
 
my $count = scalar keys %$attr;
if($count == 1
and exists $attr->{anon}
and UNIVERSAL::isa($attr->{anon}, 'ARRAY')
) {
return($attr->{anon});
}
 
 
# Do the right thing if hash is empty, otherwise just return it
 
if(!%$attr and exists($self->{opt}->{suppressempty})) {
if(defined($self->{opt}->{suppressempty}) and
$self->{opt}->{suppressempty} eq '') {
return('');
}
return(undef);
}
 
 
# Roll up named elements with named nested 'value' attributes
 
if($self->{opt}->{valueattr}) {
while(my($key, $val) = each(%$attr)) {
next unless($self->{opt}->{valueattr}->{$key});
next unless(UNIVERSAL::isa($val, 'HASH') and (keys %$val == 1));
my($k) = keys %$val;
next unless($k eq $self->{opt}->{valueattr}->{$key});
$attr->{$key} = $val->{$k};
}
}
 
return($attr)
 
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: set_var()
#
# Called when a variable definition is encountered in the XML. (A variable
# definition looks like <element attrname="name">value</element> where attrname
# matches the varattr setting).
#
 
sub set_var {
my($self, $name, $value) = @_;
 
$self->{_var_values}->{$name} = $value;
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: get_var()
#
# Called during variable substitution to get the value for the named variable.
#
 
sub get_var {
my($self, $name) = @_;
 
my $value = $self->{_var_values}->{$name};
return $value if(defined($value));
 
return '${' . $name . '}';
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: normalise_space()
#
# Strips leading and trailing whitespace and collapses sequences of whitespace
# characters to a single space.
#
 
sub normalise_space {
my($self, $text) = @_;
 
$text =~ s/^\s+//s;
$text =~ s/\s+$//s;
$text =~ s/\s\s+/ /sg;
 
return $text;
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: array_to_hash()
#
# Helper routine for collapse().
# Attempts to 'fold' an array of hashes into an hash of hashes. Returns a
# reference to the hash on success or the original array if folding is
# not possible. Behaviour is controlled by 'keyattr' option.
#
 
sub array_to_hash {
my $self = shift;
my $name = shift;
my $arrayref = shift;
 
my $hashref = $self->new_hashref;
 
my($i, $key, $val, $flag);
 
 
# Handle keyattr => { .... }
 
if(ref($self->{opt}->{keyattr}) eq 'HASH') {
return($arrayref) unless(exists($self->{opt}->{keyattr}->{$name}));
($key, $flag) = @{$self->{opt}->{keyattr}->{$name}};
for($i = 0; $i < @$arrayref; $i++) {
if(UNIVERSAL::isa($arrayref->[$i], 'HASH') and
exists($arrayref->[$i]->{$key})
) {
$val = $arrayref->[$i]->{$key};
if(ref($val)) {
$self->die_or_warn("<$name> element has non-scalar '$key' key attribute");
return($arrayref);
}
$val = $self->normalise_space($val)
if($self->{opt}->{normalisespace} == 1);
$self->die_or_warn("<$name> element has non-unique value in '$key' key attribute: $val")
if(exists($hashref->{$val}));
$hashref->{$val} = { %{$arrayref->[$i]} };
$hashref->{$val}->{"-$key"} = $hashref->{$val}->{$key} if($flag eq '-');
delete $hashref->{$val}->{$key} unless($flag eq '+');
}
else {
$self->die_or_warn("<$name> element has no '$key' key attribute");
return($arrayref);
}
}
}
 
 
# Or assume keyattr => [ .... ]
 
else {
my $default_keys =
join(',', @DefKeyAttr) eq join(',', @{$self->{opt}->{keyattr}});
 
ELEMENT: for($i = 0; $i < @$arrayref; $i++) {
return($arrayref) unless(UNIVERSAL::isa($arrayref->[$i], 'HASH'));
 
foreach $key (@{$self->{opt}->{keyattr}}) {
if(defined($arrayref->[$i]->{$key})) {
$val = $arrayref->[$i]->{$key};
if(ref($val)) {
$self->die_or_warn("<$name> element has non-scalar '$key' key attribute")
if not $default_keys;
return($arrayref);
}
$val = $self->normalise_space($val)
if($self->{opt}->{normalisespace} == 1);
$self->die_or_warn("<$name> element has non-unique value in '$key' key attribute: $val")
if(exists($hashref->{$val}));
$hashref->{$val} = { %{$arrayref->[$i]} };
delete $hashref->{$val}->{$key};
next ELEMENT;
}
}
 
return($arrayref); # No keyfield matched
}
}
# collapse any hashes which now only have a 'content' key
 
if($self->{opt}->{collapseagain}) {
$hashref = $self->collapse_content($hashref);
}
return($hashref);
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: die_or_warn()
#
# Takes a diagnostic message and does one of three things:
# 1. dies if strict mode is enabled
# 2. warns if warnings are enabled but strict mode is not
# 3. ignores message and resturns silently if neither strict mode nor warnings
# are enabled
#
 
sub die_or_warn {
my $self = shift;
my $msg = shift;
 
croak $msg if($StrictMode);
carp "Warning: $msg" if($^W);
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: new_hashref()
#
# This is a hook routine for overriding in a sub-class. Some people believe
# that using Tie::IxHash here will solve order-loss problems.
#
 
sub new_hashref {
my $self = shift;
 
return { @_ };
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: collapse_content()
#
# Helper routine for array_to_hash
#
# Arguments expected are:
# - an XML::Simple object
# - a hasref
# the hashref is a former array, turned into a hash by array_to_hash because
# of the presence of key attributes
# at this point collapse_content avoids over-complicated structures like
# dir => { libexecdir => { content => '$exec_prefix/libexec' },
# localstatedir => { content => '$prefix' },
# }
# into
# dir => { libexecdir => '$exec_prefix/libexec',
# localstatedir => '$prefix',
# }
 
sub collapse_content {
my $self = shift;
my $hashref = shift;
 
my $contentkey = $self->{opt}->{contentkey};
 
# first go through the values,checking that they are fit to collapse
foreach my $val (values %$hashref) {
return $hashref unless ( (ref($val) eq 'HASH')
and (keys %$val == 1)
and (exists $val->{$contentkey})
);
}
 
# now collapse them
foreach my $key (keys %$hashref) {
$hashref->{$key}= $hashref->{$key}->{$contentkey};
}
 
return $hashref;
}
 
##############################################################################
# Method: value_to_xml()
#
# Helper routine for XMLout() - recurses through a data structure building up
# and returning an XML representation of that structure as a string.
#
# Arguments expected are:
# - the data structure to be encoded (usually a reference)
# - the XML tag name to use for this item
# - a string of spaces for use as the current indent level
#
 
sub value_to_xml {
my $self = shift;;
 
 
# Grab the other arguments
 
my($ref, $name, $indent) = @_;
 
my $named = (defined($name) and $name ne '' ? 1 : 0);
 
my $nl = "\n";
 
my $is_root = $indent eq '' ? 1 : 0; # Warning, dirty hack!
if($self->{opt}->{noindent}) {
$indent = '';
$nl = '';
}
 
 
# Convert to XML
if(ref($ref)) {
croak "circular data structures not supported"
if(grep($_ == $ref, @{$self->{_ancestors}}));
push @{$self->{_ancestors}}, $ref;
}
else {
if($named) {
return(join('',
$indent, '<', $name, '>',
($self->{opt}->{noescape} ? $ref : $self->escape_value($ref)),
'</', $name, ">", $nl
));
}
else {
return("$ref$nl");
}
}
 
 
# Unfold hash to array if possible
 
if(UNIVERSAL::isa($ref, 'HASH') # It is a hash
and keys %$ref # and it's not empty
and $self->{opt}->{keyattr} # and folding is enabled
and !$is_root # and its not the root element
) {
$ref = $self->hash_to_array($name, $ref);
}
 
 
my @result = ();
my($key, $value);
 
 
# Handle hashrefs
 
if(UNIVERSAL::isa($ref, 'HASH')) {
 
# Reintermediate grouped values if applicable
 
if($self->{opt}->{grouptags}) {
$ref = $self->copy_hash($ref);
while(my($key, $val) = each %$ref) {
if($self->{opt}->{grouptags}->{$key}) {
$ref->{$key} = { $self->{opt}->{grouptags}->{$key} => $val };
}
}
}
 
 
# Scan for namespace declaration attributes
 
my $nsdecls = '';
my $default_ns_uri;
if($self->{nsup}) {
$ref = $self->copy_hash($ref);
$self->{nsup}->push_context();
 
# Look for default namespace declaration first
 
if(exists($ref->{xmlns})) {
$self->{nsup}->declare_prefix('', $ref->{xmlns});
$nsdecls .= qq( xmlns="$ref->{xmlns}");
delete($ref->{xmlns});
}
$default_ns_uri = $self->{nsup}->get_uri('');
 
 
# Then check all the other keys
 
foreach my $qname (keys(%$ref)) {
my($uri, $lname) = $self->{nsup}->parse_jclark_notation($qname);
if($uri) {
if($uri eq $xmlns_ns) {
$self->{nsup}->declare_prefix($lname, $ref->{$qname});
$nsdecls .= qq( xmlns:$lname="$ref->{$qname}");
delete($ref->{$qname});
}
}
}
 
# Translate any remaining Clarkian names
 
foreach my $qname (keys(%$ref)) {
my($uri, $lname) = $self->{nsup}->parse_jclark_notation($qname);
if($uri) {
if($default_ns_uri and $uri eq $default_ns_uri) {
$ref->{$lname} = $ref->{$qname};
delete($ref->{$qname});
}
else {
my $prefix = $self->{nsup}->get_prefix($uri);
unless($prefix) {
# $self->{nsup}->declare_prefix(undef, $uri);
# $prefix = $self->{nsup}->get_prefix($uri);
$prefix = $self->{ns_prefix}++;
$self->{nsup}->declare_prefix($prefix, $uri);
$nsdecls .= qq( xmlns:$prefix="$uri");
}
$ref->{"$prefix:$lname"} = $ref->{$qname};
delete($ref->{$qname});
}
}
}
}
 
 
my @nested = ();
my $text_content = undef;
if($named) {
push @result, $indent, '<', $name, $nsdecls;
}
 
if(keys %$ref) {
my $first_arg = 1;
foreach my $key ($self->sorted_keys($name, $ref)) {
my $value = $ref->{$key};
next if(substr($key, 0, 1) eq '-');
if(!defined($value)) {
next if $self->{opt}->{suppressempty};
unless(exists($self->{opt}->{suppressempty})
and !defined($self->{opt}->{suppressempty})
) {
carp 'Use of uninitialized value' if($^W);
}
if($key eq $self->{opt}->{contentkey}) {
$text_content = '';
}
else {
$value = exists($self->{opt}->{suppressempty}) ? {} : '';
}
}
 
if(!ref($value)
and $self->{opt}->{valueattr}
and $self->{opt}->{valueattr}->{$key}
) {
$value = { $self->{opt}->{valueattr}->{$key} => $value };
}
 
if(ref($value) or $self->{opt}->{noattr}) {
push @nested,
$self->value_to_xml($value, $key, "$indent ");
}
else {
$value = $self->escape_value($value) unless($self->{opt}->{noescape});
if($key eq $self->{opt}->{contentkey}) {
$text_content = $value;
}
else {
push @result, "\n$indent " . ' ' x length($name)
if($self->{opt}->{attrindent} and !$first_arg);
push @result, ' ', $key, '="', $value , '"';
$first_arg = 0;
}
}
}
}
else {
$text_content = '';
}
 
if(@nested or defined($text_content)) {
if($named) {
push @result, ">";
if(defined($text_content)) {
push @result, $text_content;
$nested[0] =~ s/^\s+// if(@nested);
}
else {
push @result, $nl;
}
if(@nested) {
push @result, @nested, $indent;
}
push @result, '</', $name, ">", $nl;
}
else {
push @result, @nested; # Special case if no root elements
}
}
else {
push @result, " />", $nl;
}
$self->{nsup}->pop_context() if($self->{nsup});
}
 
 
# Handle arrayrefs
 
elsif(UNIVERSAL::isa($ref, 'ARRAY')) {
foreach $value (@$ref) {
next if !defined($value) and $self->{opt}->{suppressempty};
if(!ref($value)) {
push @result,
$indent, '<', $name, '>',
($self->{opt}->{noescape} ? $value : $self->escape_value($value)),
'</', $name, ">$nl";
}
elsif(UNIVERSAL::isa($value, 'HASH')) {
push @result, $self->value_to_xml($value, $name, $indent);
}
else {
push @result,
$indent, '<', $name, ">$nl",
$self->value_to_xml($value, 'anon', "$indent "),
$indent, '</', $name, ">$nl";
}
}
}
 
else {
croak "Can't encode a value of type: " . ref($ref);
}
 
 
pop @{$self->{_ancestors}} if(ref($ref));
 
return(join('', @result));
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: sorted_keys()
#
# Returns the keys of the referenced hash sorted into alphabetical order, but
# with the 'key' key (as in KeyAttr) first, if there is one.
#
 
sub sorted_keys {
my($self, $name, $ref) = @_;
 
return keys %$ref if $self->{opt}->{nosort};
 
my %hash = %$ref;
my $keyattr = $self->{opt}->{keyattr};
 
my @key;
 
if(ref $keyattr eq 'HASH') {
if(exists $keyattr->{$name} and exists $hash{$keyattr->{$name}->[0]}) {
push @key, $keyattr->{$name}->[0];
delete $hash{$keyattr->{$name}->[0]};
}
}
elsif(ref $keyattr eq 'ARRAY') {
foreach (@{$keyattr}) {
if(exists $hash{$_}) {
push @key, $_;
delete $hash{$_};
last;
}
}
}
 
return(@key, sort keys %hash);
}
 
##############################################################################
# Method: escape_value()
#
# Helper routine for automatically escaping values for XMLout().
# Expects a scalar data value. Returns escaped version.
#
 
sub escape_value {
my($self, $data) = @_;
 
return '' unless(defined($data));
 
$data =~ s/&/&amp;/sg;
$data =~ s/</&lt;/sg;
$data =~ s/>/&gt;/sg;
$data =~ s/"/&quot;/sg;
 
my $level = $self->{opt}->{numericescape} or return $data;
 
return $self->numeric_escape($data, $level);
}
 
sub numeric_escape {
my($self, $data, $level) = @_;
 
use utf8; # required for 5.6
 
if($self->{opt}->{numericescape} eq '2') {
$data =~ s/([^\x00-\x7F])/'&#' . ord($1) . ';'/gse;
}
else {
$data =~ s/([^\x00-\xFF])/'&#' . ord($1) . ';'/gse;
}
 
return $data;
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: hash_to_array()
#
# Helper routine for value_to_xml().
# Attempts to 'unfold' a hash of hashes into an array of hashes. Returns a
# reference to the array on success or the original hash if unfolding is
# not possible.
#
 
sub hash_to_array {
my $self = shift;
my $parent = shift;
my $hashref = shift;
 
my $arrayref = [];
 
my($key, $value);
 
my @keys = $self->{opt}->{nosort} ? keys %$hashref : sort keys %$hashref;
foreach $key (@keys) {
$value = $hashref->{$key};
return($hashref) unless(UNIVERSAL::isa($value, 'HASH'));
 
if(ref($self->{opt}->{keyattr}) eq 'HASH') {
return($hashref) unless(defined($self->{opt}->{keyattr}->{$parent}));
push @$arrayref, $self->copy_hash(
$value, $self->{opt}->{keyattr}->{$parent}->[0] => $key
);
}
else {
push(@$arrayref, { $self->{opt}->{keyattr}->[0] => $key, %$value });
}
}
 
return($arrayref);
}
 
 
##############################################################################
# Method: copy_hash()
#
# Helper routine for hash_to_array(). When unfolding a hash of hashes into
# an array of hashes, we need to copy the key from the outer hash into the
# inner hash. This routine makes a copy of the original hash so we don't
# destroy the original data structure. You might wish to override this
# method if you're using tied hashes and don't want them to get untied.
#
 
sub copy_hash {
my($self, $orig, @extra) = @_;
 
return { @extra, %$orig };
}
 
##############################################################################
# Methods required for building trees from SAX events
##############################################################################
 
sub start_document {
my $self = shift;
 
$self->handle_options('in') unless($self->{opt});
 
$self->{lists} = [];
$self->{curlist} = $self->{tree} = [];
}
 
 
sub start_element {
my $self = shift;
my $element = shift;
 
my $name = $element->{Name};
if($self->{opt}->{nsexpand}) {
$name = $element->{LocalName} || '';
if($element->{NamespaceURI}) {
$name = '{' . $element->{NamespaceURI} . '}' . $name;
}
}
my $attributes = {};
if($element->{Attributes}) { # Might be undef
foreach my $attr (values %{$element->{Attributes}}) {
if($self->{opt}->{nsexpand}) {
my $name = $attr->{LocalName} || '';
if($attr->{NamespaceURI}) {
$name = '{' . $attr->{NamespaceURI} . '}' . $name
}
$name = 'xmlns' if($name eq $bad_def_ns_jcn);
$attributes->{$name} = $attr->{Value};
}
else {
$attributes->{$attr->{Name}} = $attr->{Value};
}
}
}
my $newlist = [ $attributes ];
push @{ $self->{lists} }, $self->{curlist};
push @{ $self->{curlist} }, $name => $newlist;
$self->{curlist} = $newlist;
}
 
 
sub characters {
my $self = shift;
my $chars = shift;
 
my $text = $chars->{Data};
my $clist = $self->{curlist};
my $pos = $#$clist;
if ($pos > 0 and $clist->[$pos - 1] eq '0') {
$clist->[$pos] .= $text;
}
else {
push @$clist, 0 => $text;
}
}
 
 
sub end_element {
my $self = shift;
 
$self->{curlist} = pop @{ $self->{lists} };
}
 
 
sub end_document {
my $self = shift;
 
delete($self->{curlist});
delete($self->{lists});
 
my $tree = $self->{tree};
delete($self->{tree});
 
 
# Return tree as-is to XMLin()
 
return($tree) if($self->{nocollapse});
 
 
# Or collapse it before returning it to SAX parser class
if($self->{opt}->{keeproot}) {
$tree = $self->collapse({}, @$tree);
}
else {
$tree = $self->collapse(@{$tree->[1]});
}
 
if($self->{opt}->{datahandler}) {
return($self->{opt}->{datahandler}->($self, $tree));
}
 
return($tree);
}
 
*xml_in = \&XMLin;
*xml_out = \&XMLout;
 
1;
 
__END__
 
=head1 QUICK START
 
Say you have a script called B<foo> and a file of configuration options
called B<foo.xml> containing this:
 
<config logdir="/var/log/foo/" debugfile="/tmp/foo.debug">
<server name="sahara" osname="solaris" osversion="2.6">
<address>10.0.0.101</address>
<address>10.0.1.101</address>
</server>
<server name="gobi" osname="irix" osversion="6.5">
<address>10.0.0.102</address>
</server>
<server name="kalahari" osname="linux" osversion="2.0.34">
<address>10.0.0.103</address>
<address>10.0.1.103</address>
</server>
</config>
 
The following lines of code in B<foo>:
 
use XML::Simple;
 
my $config = XMLin();
 
will 'slurp' the configuration options into the hashref $config (because no
arguments are passed to C<XMLin()> the name and location of the XML file will
be inferred from name and location of the script). You can dump out the
contents of the hashref using Data::Dumper:
 
use Data::Dumper;
 
print Dumper($config);
 
which will produce something like this (formatting has been adjusted for
brevity):
 
{
'logdir' => '/var/log/foo/',
'debugfile' => '/tmp/foo.debug',
'server' => {
'sahara' => {
'osversion' => '2.6',
'osname' => 'solaris',
'address' => [ '10.0.0.101', '10.0.1.101' ]
},
'gobi' => {
'osversion' => '6.5',
'osname' => 'irix',
'address' => '10.0.0.102'
},
'kalahari' => {
'osversion' => '2.0.34',
'osname' => 'linux',
'address' => [ '10.0.0.103', '10.0.1.103' ]
}
}
}
 
Your script could then access the name of the log directory like this:
 
print $config->{logdir};
 
similarly, the second address on the server 'kalahari' could be referenced as:
 
print $config->{server}->{kalahari}->{address}->[1];
 
What could be simpler? (Rhetorical).
 
For simple requirements, that's really all there is to it. If you want to
store your XML in a different directory or file, or pass it in as a string or
even pass it in via some derivative of an IO::Handle, you'll need to check out
L<"OPTIONS">. If you want to turn off or tweak the array folding feature (that
neat little transformation that produced $config->{server}) you'll find options
for that as well.
 
If you want to generate XML (for example to write a modified version of
$config back out as XML), check out C<XMLout()>.
 
If your needs are not so simple, this may not be the module for you. In that
case, you might want to read L<"WHERE TO FROM HERE?">.
 
=head1 DESCRIPTION
 
The XML::Simple module provides a simple API layer on top of an underlying XML
parsing module (either XML::Parser or one of the SAX2 parser modules). Two
functions are exported: C<XMLin()> and C<XMLout()>. Note: you can explicity
request the lower case versions of the function names: C<xml_in()> and
C<xml_out()>.
 
The simplest approach is to call these two functions directly, but an
optional object oriented interface (see L<"OPTIONAL OO INTERFACE"> below)
allows them to be called as methods of an B<XML::Simple> object. The object
interface can also be used at either end of a SAX pipeline.
 
=head2 XMLin()
 
Parses XML formatted data and returns a reference to a data structure which
contains the same information in a more readily accessible form. (Skip
down to L<"EXAMPLES"> below, for more sample code).
 
C<XMLin()> accepts an optional XML specifier followed by zero or more 'name =>
value' option pairs. The XML specifier can be one of the following:
 
=over 4
 
=item A filename
 
If the filename contains no directory components C<XMLin()> will look for the
file in each directory in the SearchPath (see L<"OPTIONS"> below) or in the
current directory if the SearchPath option is not defined. eg:
 
$ref = XMLin('/etc/params.xml');
 
Note, the filename '-' can be used to parse from STDIN.
 
=item undef
 
If there is no XML specifier, C<XMLin()> will check the script directory and
each of the SearchPath directories for a file with the same name as the script
but with the extension '.xml'. Note: if you wish to specify options, you
must specify the value 'undef'. eg:
 
$ref = XMLin(undef, ForceArray => 1);
 
=item A string of XML
 
A string containing XML (recognised by the presence of '<' and '>' characters)
will be parsed directly. eg:
 
$ref = XMLin('<opt username="bob" password="flurp" />');
 
=item An IO::Handle object
 
An IO::Handle object will be read to EOF and its contents parsed. eg:
 
$fh = IO::File->new('/etc/params.xml');
$ref = XMLin($fh);
 
=back
 
=head2 XMLout()
 
Takes a data structure (generally a hashref) and returns an XML encoding of
that structure. If the resulting XML is parsed using C<XMLin()>, it should
return a data structure equivalent to the original (see caveats below).
 
The C<XMLout()> function can also be used to output the XML as SAX events
see the C<Handler> option and L<"SAX SUPPORT"> for more details).
 
When translating hashes to XML, hash keys which have a leading '-' will be
silently skipped. This is the approved method for marking elements of a
data structure which should be ignored by C<XMLout>. (Note: If these items
were not skipped the key names would be emitted as element or attribute names
with a leading '-' which would not be valid XML).
 
=head2 Caveats
 
Some care is required in creating data structures which will be passed to
C<XMLout()>. Hash keys from the data structure will be encoded as either XML
element names or attribute names. Therefore, you should use hash key names
which conform to the relatively strict XML naming rules:
 
Names in XML must begin with a letter. The remaining characters may be
letters, digits, hyphens (-), underscores (_) or full stops (.). It is also
allowable to include one colon (:) in an element name but this should only be
used when working with namespaces (B<XML::Simple> can only usefully work with
namespaces when teamed with a SAX Parser).
 
You can use other punctuation characters in hash values (just not in hash
keys) however B<XML::Simple> does not support dumping binary data.
 
If you break these rules, the current implementation of C<XMLout()> will
simply emit non-compliant XML which will be rejected if you try to read it
back in. (A later version of B<XML::Simple> might take a more proactive
approach).
 
Note also that although you can nest hashes and arrays to arbitrary levels,
circular data structures are not supported and will cause C<XMLout()> to die.
 
If you wish to 'round-trip' arbitrary data structures from Perl to XML and back
to Perl, then you should probably disable array folding (using the KeyAttr
option) both with C<XMLout()> and with C<XMLin()>. If you still don't get the
expected results, you may prefer to use L<XML::Dumper> which is designed for
exactly that purpose.
 
Refer to L<"WHERE TO FROM HERE?"> if C<XMLout()> is too simple for your needs.
 
 
=head1 OPTIONS
 
B<XML::Simple> supports a number of options (in fact as each release of
B<XML::Simple> adds more options, the module's claim to the name 'Simple'
becomes increasingly tenuous). If you find yourself repeatedly having to
specify the same options, you might like to investigate L<"OPTIONAL OO
INTERFACE"> below.
 
If you can't be bothered reading the documentation, refer to
L<"STRICT MODE"> to automatically catch common mistakes.
 
Because there are so many options, it's hard for new users to know which ones
are important, so here are the two you really need to know about:
 
=over 4
 
=item *
 
check out C<ForceArray> because you'll almost certainly want to turn it on
 
=item *
 
make sure you know what the C<KeyAttr> option does and what its default value is
because it may surprise you otherwise (note in particular that 'KeyAttr'
affects both C<XMLin> and C<XMLout>)
 
=back
 
The option name headings below have a trailing 'comment' - a hash followed by
two pieces of metadata:
 
=over 4
 
=item *
 
Options are marked with 'I<in>' if they are recognised by C<XMLin()> and
'I<out>' if they are recognised by C<XMLout()>.
 
=item *
 
Each option is also flagged to indicate whether it is:
 
'important' - don't use the module until you understand this one
'handy' - you can skip this on the first time through
'advanced' - you can skip this on the second time through
'SAX only' - don't worry about this unless you're using SAX (or
alternatively if you need this, you also need SAX)
'seldom used' - you'll probably never use this unless you were the
person that requested the feature
 
=back
 
The options are listed alphabetically:
 
Note: option names are no longer case sensitive so you can use the mixed case
versions shown here; all lower case as required by versions 2.03 and earlier;
or you can add underscores between the words (eg: key_attr).
 
 
=head2 AttrIndent => 1 I<# out - handy>
 
When you are using C<XMLout()>, enable this option to have attributes printed
one-per-line with sensible indentation rather than all on one line.
 
=head2 Cache => [ cache schemes ] I<# in - advanced>
 
Because loading the B<XML::Parser> module and parsing an XML file can consume a
significant number of CPU cycles, it is often desirable to cache the output of
C<XMLin()> for later reuse.
 
When parsing from a named file, B<XML::Simple> supports a number of caching
schemes. The 'Cache' option may be used to specify one or more schemes (using
an anonymous array). Each scheme will be tried in turn in the hope of finding
a cached pre-parsed representation of the XML file. If no cached copy is
found, the file will be parsed and the first cache scheme in the list will be
used to save a copy of the results. The following cache schemes have been
implemented:
 
=over 4
 
=item storable
 
Utilises B<Storable.pm> to read/write a cache file with the same name as the
XML file but with the extension .stor
 
=item memshare
 
When a file is first parsed, a copy of the resulting data structure is retained
in memory in the B<XML::Simple> module's namespace. Subsequent calls to parse
the same file will return a reference to this structure. This cached version
will persist only for the life of the Perl interpreter (which in the case of
mod_perl for example, may be some significant time).
 
Because each caller receives a reference to the same data structure, a change
made by one caller will be visible to all. For this reason, the reference
returned should be treated as read-only.
 
=item memcopy
 
This scheme works identically to 'memshare' (above) except that each caller
receives a reference to a new data structure which is a copy of the cached
version. Copying the data structure will add a little processing overhead,
therefore this scheme should only be used where the caller intends to modify
the data structure (or wishes to protect itself from others who might). This
scheme uses B<Storable.pm> to perform the copy.
 
=back
 
Warning! The memory-based caching schemes compare the timestamp on the file to
the time when it was last parsed. If the file is stored on an NFS filesystem
(or other network share) and the clock on the file server is not exactly
synchronised with the clock where your script is run, updates to the source XML
file may appear to be ignored.
 
=head2 ContentKey => 'keyname' I<# in+out - seldom used>
 
When text content is parsed to a hash value, this option let's you specify a
name for the hash key to override the default 'content'. So for example:
 
XMLin('<opt one="1">Text</opt>', ContentKey => 'text')
 
will parse to:
 
{ 'one' => 1, 'text' => 'Text' }
 
instead of:
 
{ 'one' => 1, 'content' => 'Text' }
 
C<XMLout()> will also honour the value of this option when converting a hashref
to XML.
 
You can also prefix your selected key name with a '-' character to have
C<XMLin()> try a little harder to eliminate unnecessary 'content' keys after
array folding. For example:
 
XMLin(
'<opt><item name="one">First</item><item name="two">Second</item></opt>',
KeyAttr => {item => 'name'},
ForceArray => [ 'item' ],
ContentKey => '-content'
)
 
will parse to:
 
{
'item' => {
'one' => 'First'
'two' => 'Second'
}
}
 
rather than this (without the '-'):
 
{
'item' => {
'one' => { 'content' => 'First' }
'two' => { 'content' => 'Second' }
}
}
 
=head2 DataHandler => code_ref I<# in - SAX only>
 
When you use an B<XML::Simple> object as a SAX handler, it will return a
'simple tree' data structure in the same format as C<XMLin()> would return. If
this option is set (to a subroutine reference), then when the tree is built the
subroutine will be called and passed two arguments: a reference to the
B<XML::Simple> object and a reference to the data tree. The return value from
the subroutine will be returned to the SAX driver. (See L<"SAX SUPPORT"> for
more details).
 
=head2 ForceArray => 1 I<# in - important>
 
This option should be set to '1' to force nested elements to be represented
as arrays even when there is only one. Eg, with ForceArray enabled, this
XML:
 
<opt>
<name>value</name>
</opt>
 
would parse to this:
 
{
'name' => [
'value'
]
}
 
instead of this (the default):
 
{
'name' => 'value'
}
 
This option is especially useful if the data structure is likely to be written
back out as XML and the default behaviour of rolling single nested elements up
into attributes is not desirable.
 
If you are using the array folding feature, you should almost certainly enable
this option. If you do not, single nested elements will not be parsed to
arrays and therefore will not be candidates for folding to a hash. (Given that
the default value of 'KeyAttr' enables array folding, the default value of this
option should probably also have been enabled too - sorry).
 
=head2 ForceArray => [ names ] I<# in - important>
 
This alternative (and preferred) form of the 'ForceArray' option allows you to
specify a list of element names which should always be forced into an array
representation, rather than the 'all or nothing' approach above.
 
It is also possible (since version 2.05) to include compiled regular
expressions in the list - any element names which match the pattern will be
forced to arrays. If the list contains only a single regex, then it is not
necessary to enclose it in an arrayref. Eg:
 
ForceArray => qr/_list$/
 
=head2 ForceContent => 1 I<# in - seldom used>
 
When C<XMLin()> parses elements which have text content as well as attributes,
the text content must be represented as a hash value rather than a simple
scalar. This option allows you to force text content to always parse to
a hash value even when there are no attributes. So for example:
 
XMLin('<opt><x>text1</x><y a="2">text2</y></opt>', ForceContent => 1)
 
will parse to:
 
{
'x' => { 'content' => 'text1' },
'y' => { 'a' => 2, 'content' => 'text2' }
}
 
instead of:
 
{
'x' => 'text1',
'y' => { 'a' => 2, 'content' => 'text2' }
}
 
=head2 GroupTags => { grouping tag => grouped tag } I<# in+out - handy>
 
You can use this option to eliminate extra levels of indirection in your Perl
data structure. For example this XML:
 
<opt>
<searchpath>
<dir>/usr/bin</dir>
<dir>/usr/local/bin</dir>
<dir>/usr/X11/bin</dir>
</searchpath>
</opt>
 
Would normally be read into a structure like this:
 
{
searchpath => {
dir => [ '/usr/bin', '/usr/local/bin', '/usr/X11/bin' ]
}
}
 
But when read in with the appropriate value for 'GroupTags':
 
my $opt = XMLin($xml, GroupTags => { searchpath => 'dir' });
 
It will return this simpler structure:
 
{
searchpath => [ '/usr/bin', '/usr/local/bin', '/usr/X11/bin' ]
}
 
The grouping element (C<< <searchpath> >> in the example) must not contain any
attributes or elements other than the grouped element.
 
You can specify multiple 'grouping element' to 'grouped element' mappings in
the same hashref. If this option is combined with C<KeyAttr>, the array
folding will occur first and then the grouped element names will be eliminated.
 
C<XMLout> will also use the grouptag mappings to re-introduce the tags around
the grouped elements. Beware though that this will occur in all places that
the 'grouping tag' name occurs - you probably don't want to use the same name
for elements as well as attributes.
 
=head2 Handler => object_ref I<# out - SAX only>
 
Use the 'Handler' option to have C<XMLout()> generate SAX events rather than
returning a string of XML. For more details see L<"SAX SUPPORT"> below.
 
Note: the current implementation of this option generates a string of XML
and uses a SAX parser to translate it into SAX events. The normal encoding
rules apply here - your data must be UTF8 encoded unless you specify an
alternative encoding via the 'XMLDecl' option; and by the time the data reaches
the handler object, it will be in UTF8 form regardless of the encoding you
supply. A future implementation of this option may generate the events
directly.
 
=head2 KeepRoot => 1 I<# in+out - handy>
 
In its attempt to return a data structure free of superfluous detail and
unnecessary levels of indirection, C<XMLin()> normally discards the root
element name. Setting the 'KeepRoot' option to '1' will cause the root element
name to be retained. So after executing this code:
 
$config = XMLin('<config tempdir="/tmp" />', KeepRoot => 1)
 
You'll be able to reference the tempdir as
C<$config-E<gt>{config}-E<gt>{tempdir}> instead of the default
C<$config-E<gt>{tempdir}>.
 
Similarly, setting the 'KeepRoot' option to '1' will tell C<XMLout()> that the
data structure already contains a root element name and it is not necessary to
add another.
 
=head2 KeyAttr => [ list ] I<# in+out - important>
 
This option controls the 'array folding' feature which translates nested
elements from an array to a hash. It also controls the 'unfolding' of hashes
to arrays.
 
For example, this XML:
 
<opt>
<user login="grep" fullname="Gary R Epstein" />
<user login="stty" fullname="Simon T Tyson" />
</opt>
 
would, by default, parse to this:
 
{
'user' => [
{
'login' => 'grep',
'fullname' => 'Gary R Epstein'
},
{
'login' => 'stty',
'fullname' => 'Simon T Tyson'
}
]
}
 
If the option 'KeyAttr => "login"' were used to specify that the 'login'
attribute is a key, the same XML would parse to:
 
{
'user' => {
'stty' => {
'fullname' => 'Simon T Tyson'
},
'grep' => {
'fullname' => 'Gary R Epstein'
}
}
}
 
The key attribute names should be supplied in an arrayref if there is more
than one. C<XMLin()> will attempt to match attribute names in the order
supplied. C<XMLout()> will use the first attribute name supplied when
'unfolding' a hash into an array.
 
Note 1: The default value for 'KeyAttr' is ['name', 'key', 'id']. If you do
not want folding on input or unfolding on output you must setting this option
to an empty list to disable the feature.
 
Note 2: If you wish to use this option, you should also enable the
C<ForceArray> option. Without 'ForceArray', a single nested element will be
rolled up into a scalar rather than an array and therefore will not be folded
(since only arrays get folded).
 
=head2 KeyAttr => { list } I<# in+out - important>
 
This alternative (and preferred) method of specifiying the key attributes
allows more fine grained control over which elements are folded and on which
attributes. For example the option 'KeyAttr => { package => 'id' } will cause
any package elements to be folded on the 'id' attribute. No other elements
which have an 'id' attribute will be folded at all.
 
Note: C<XMLin()> will generate a warning (or a fatal error in L<"STRICT MODE">)
if this syntax is used and an element which does not have the specified key
attribute is encountered (eg: a 'package' element without an 'id' attribute, to
use the example above). Warnings will only be generated if B<-w> is in force.
 
Two further variations are made possible by prefixing a '+' or a '-' character
to the attribute name:
 
The option 'KeyAttr => { user => "+login" }' will cause this XML:
 
<opt>
<user login="grep" fullname="Gary R Epstein" />
<user login="stty" fullname="Simon T Tyson" />
</opt>
 
to parse to this data structure:
 
{
'user' => {
'stty' => {
'fullname' => 'Simon T Tyson',
'login' => 'stty'
},
'grep' => {
'fullname' => 'Gary R Epstein',
'login' => 'grep'
}
}
}
 
The '+' indicates that the value of the key attribute should be copied rather
than moved to the folded hash key.
 
A '-' prefix would produce this result:
 
{
'user' => {
'stty' => {
'fullname' => 'Simon T Tyson',
'-login' => 'stty'
},
'grep' => {
'fullname' => 'Gary R Epstein',
'-login' => 'grep'
}
}
}
 
As described earlier, C<XMLout> will ignore hash keys starting with a '-'.
 
=head2 NoAttr => 1 I<# in+out - handy>
 
When used with C<XMLout()>, the generated XML will contain no attributes.
All hash key/values will be represented as nested elements instead.
 
When used with C<XMLin()>, any attributes in the XML will be ignored.
 
=head2 NoEscape => 1 I<# out - seldom used>
 
By default, C<XMLout()> will translate the characters 'E<lt>', 'E<gt>', '&' and
'"' to '&lt;', '&gt;', '&amp;' and '&quot' respectively. Use this option to
suppress escaping (presumably because you've already escaped the data in some
more sophisticated manner).
 
=head2 NoIndent => 1 I<# out - seldom used>
 
Set this option to 1 to disable C<XMLout()>'s default 'pretty printing' mode.
With this option enabled, the XML output will all be on one line (unless there
are newlines in the data) - this may be easier for downstream processing.
 
=head2 NoSort => 1 I<# out - seldom used>
 
Newer versions of XML::Simple sort elements and attributes alphabetically (*),
by default. Enable this option to suppress the sorting - possibly for
backwards compatibility.
 
* Actually, sorting is alphabetical but 'key' attribute or element names (as in
'KeyAttr') sort first. Also, when a hash of hashes is 'unfolded', the elements
are sorted alphabetically by the value of the key field.
 
=head2 NormaliseSpace => 0 | 1 | 2 I<# in - handy>
 
This option controls how whitespace in text content is handled. Recognised
values for the option are:
 
=over 4
 
=item *
 
0 = (default) whitespace is passed through unaltered (except of course for the
normalisation of whitespace in attribute values which is mandated by the XML
recommendation)
 
=item *
 
1 = whitespace is normalised in any value used as a hash key (normalising means
removing leading and trailing whitespace and collapsing sequences of whitespace
characters to a single space)
 
=item *
 
2 = whitespace is normalised in all text content
 
=back
 
Note: you can spell this option with a 'z' if that is more natural for you.
 
=head2 NSExpand => 1 I<# in+out handy - SAX only>
 
This option controls namespace expansion - the translation of element and
attribute names of the form 'prefix:name' to '{uri}name'. For example the
element name 'xsl:template' might be expanded to:
'{http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform}template'.
 
By default, C<XMLin()> will return element names and attribute names exactly as
they appear in the XML. Setting this option to 1 will cause all element and
attribute names to be expanded to include their namespace prefix.
 
I<Note: You must be using a SAX parser for this option to work (ie: it does not
work with XML::Parser)>.
 
This option also controls whether C<XMLout()> performs the reverse translation
from '{uri}name' back to 'prefix:name'. The default is no translation. If
your data contains expanded names, you should set this option to 1 otherwise
C<XMLout> will emit XML which is not well formed.
 
I<Note: You must have the XML::NamespaceSupport module installed if you want
C<XMLout()> to translate URIs back to prefixes>.
 
=head2 NumericEscape => 0 | 1 | 2 I<# out - handy>
 
Use this option to have 'high' (non-ASCII) characters in your Perl data
structure converted to numeric entities (eg: &#8364;) in the XML output. Three
levels are possible:
 
0 - default: no numeric escaping (OK if you're writing out UTF8)
 
1 - only characters above 0xFF are escaped (ie: characters in the 0x80-FF range are not escaped), possibly useful with ISO8859-1 output
 
2 - all characters above 0x7F are escaped (good for plain ASCII output)
 
=head2 OutputFile => <file specifier> I<# out - handy>
 
The default behaviour of C<XMLout()> is to return the XML as a string. If you
wish to write the XML to a file, simply supply the filename using the
'OutputFile' option.
 
This option also accepts an IO handle object - especially useful in Perl 5.8.0
and later for output using an encoding other than UTF-8, eg:
 
open my $fh, '>:encoding(iso-8859-1)', $path or die "open($path): $!";
XMLout($ref, OutputFile => $fh);
 
Note, XML::Simple does not require that the object you pass in to the
OutputFile option inherits from L<IO::Handle> - it simply assumes the object
supports a C<print> method.
 
=head2 ParserOpts => [ XML::Parser Options ] I<# in - don't use this>
 
I<Note: This option is now officially deprecated. If you find it useful, email
the author with an example of what you use it for. Do not use this option to
set the ProtocolEncoding, that's just plain wrong - fix the XML>.
 
This option allows you to pass parameters to the constructor of the underlying
XML::Parser object (which of course assumes you're not using SAX).
 
=head2 RootName => 'string' I<# out - handy>
 
By default, when C<XMLout()> generates XML, the root element will be named
'opt'. This option allows you to specify an alternative name.
 
Specifying either undef or the empty string for the RootName option will
produce XML with no root elements. In most cases the resulting XML fragment
will not be 'well formed' and therefore could not be read back in by C<XMLin()>.
Nevertheless, the option has been found to be useful in certain circumstances.
 
=head2 SearchPath => [ list ] I<# in - handy>
 
If you pass C<XMLin()> a filename, but the filename include no directory
component, you can use this option to specify which directories should be
searched to locate the file. You might use this option to search first in the
user's home directory, then in a global directory such as /etc.
 
If a filename is provided to C<XMLin()> but SearchPath is not defined, the
file is assumed to be in the current directory.
 
If the first parameter to C<XMLin()> is undefined, the default SearchPath
will contain only the directory in which the script itself is located.
Otherwise the default SearchPath will be empty.
 
=head2 SuppressEmpty => 1 | '' | undef I<# in+out - handy>
 
This option controls what C<XMLin()> should do with empty elements (no
attributes and no content). The default behaviour is to represent them as
empty hashes. Setting this option to a true value (eg: 1) will cause empty
elements to be skipped altogether. Setting the option to 'undef' or the empty
string will cause empty elements to be represented as the undefined value or
the empty string respectively. The latter two alternatives are a little
easier to test for in your code than a hash with no keys.
 
The option also controls what C<XMLout()> does with undefined values. Setting
the option to undef causes undefined values to be output as empty elements
(rather than empty attributes), it also suppresses the generation of warnings
about undefined values. Setting the option to a true value (eg: 1) causes
undefined values to be skipped altogether on output.
 
=head2 ValueAttr => [ names ] I<# in - handy>
 
Use this option to deal elements which always have a single attribute and no
content. Eg:
 
<opt>
<colour value="red" />
<size value="XXL" />
</opt>
 
Setting C<< ValueAttr => [ 'value' ] >> will cause the above XML to parse to:
 
{
colour => 'red',
size => 'XXL'
}
 
instead of this (the default):
 
{
colour => { value => 'red' },
size => { value => 'XXL' }
}
 
Note: This form of the ValueAttr option is not compatible with C<XMLout()> -
since the attribute name is discarded at parse time, the original XML cannot be
reconstructed.
 
=head2 ValueAttr => { element => attribute, ... } I<# in+out - handy>
 
This (preferred) form of the ValueAttr option requires you to specify both
the element and the attribute names. This is not only safer, it also allows
the original XML to be reconstructed by C<XMLout()>.
 
Note: You probably don't want to use this option and the NoAttr option at the
same time.
 
=head2 Variables => { name => value } I<# in - handy>
 
This option allows variables in the XML to be expanded when the file is read.
(there is no facility for putting the variable names back if you regenerate
XML using C<XMLout>).
 
A 'variable' is any text of the form C<${name}> which occurs in an attribute
value or in the text content of an element. If 'name' matches a key in the
supplied hashref, C<${name}> will be replaced with the corresponding value from
the hashref. If no matching key is found, the variable will not be replaced.
Names must match the regex: C<[\w.]+> (ie: only 'word' characters and dots are
allowed).
 
=head2 VarAttr => 'attr_name' I<# in - handy>
 
In addition to the variables defined using C<Variables>, this option allows
variables to be defined in the XML. A variable definition consists of an
element with an attribute called 'attr_name' (the value of the C<VarAttr>
option). The value of the attribute will be used as the variable name and the
text content of the element will be used as the value. A variable defined in
this way will override a variable defined using the C<Variables> option. For
example:
 
XMLin( '<opt>
<dir name="prefix">/usr/local/apache</dir>
<dir name="exec_prefix">${prefix}</dir>
<dir name="bindir">${exec_prefix}/bin</dir>
</opt>',
VarAttr => 'name', ContentKey => '-content'
);
 
produces the following data structure:
 
{
dir => {
prefix => '/usr/local/apache',
exec_prefix => '/usr/local/apache',
bindir => '/usr/local/apache/bin',
}
}
 
=head2 XMLDecl => 1 or XMLDecl => 'string' I<# out - handy>
 
If you want the output from C<XMLout()> to start with the optional XML
declaration, simply set the option to '1'. The default XML declaration is:
 
<?xml version='1.0' standalone='yes'?>
 
If you want some other string (for example to declare an encoding value), set
the value of this option to the complete string you require.
 
 
=head1 OPTIONAL OO INTERFACE
 
The procedural interface is both simple and convenient however there are a
couple of reasons why you might prefer to use the object oriented (OO)
interface:
 
=over 4
 
=item *
 
to define a set of default values which should be used on all subsequent calls
to C<XMLin()> or C<XMLout()>
 
=item *
 
to override methods in B<XML::Simple> to provide customised behaviour
 
=back
 
The default values for the options described above are unlikely to suit
everyone. The OO interface allows you to effectively override B<XML::Simple>'s
defaults with your preferred values. It works like this:
 
First create an XML::Simple parser object with your preferred defaults:
 
my $xs = XML::Simple->new(ForceArray => 1, KeepRoot => 1);
 
then call C<XMLin()> or C<XMLout()> as a method of that object:
 
my $ref = $xs->XMLin($xml);
my $xml = $xs->XMLout($ref);
 
You can also specify options when you make the method calls and these values
will be merged with the values specified when the object was created. Values
specified in a method call take precedence.
 
Note: when called as methods, the C<XMLin()> and C<XMLout()> routines may be
called as C<xml_in()> or C<xml_out()>. The method names are aliased so the
only difference is the aesthetics.
 
=head2 Parsing Methods
 
You can explicitly call one of the following methods rather than rely on the
C<xml_in()> method automatically determining whether the target to be parsed is
a string, a file or a filehandle:
 
=over 4
 
=item parse_string(text)
 
Works exactly like the C<xml_in()> method but assumes the first argument is
a string of XML (or a reference to a scalar containing a string of XML).
 
=item parse_file(filename)
 
Works exactly like the C<xml_in()> method but assumes the first argument is
the name of a file containing XML.
 
=item parse_fh(file_handle)
 
Works exactly like the C<xml_in()> method but assumes the first argument is
a filehandle which can be read to get XML.
 
=back
 
=head2 Hook Methods
 
You can make your own class which inherits from XML::Simple and overrides
certain behaviours. The following methods may provide useful 'hooks' upon
which to hang your modified behaviour. You may find other undocumented methods
by examining the source, but those may be subject to change in future releases.
 
=over 4
 
=item handle_options(direction, name => value ...)
 
This method will be called when one of the parsing methods or the C<XMLout()>
method is called. The initial argument will be a string (either 'in' or 'out')
and the remaining arguments will be name value pairs.
 
=item default_config_file()
 
Calculates and returns the name of the file which should be parsed if no
filename is passed to C<XMLin()> (default: C<$0.xml>).
 
=item build_simple_tree(filename, string)
 
Called from C<XMLin()> or any of the parsing methods. Takes either a file name
as the first argument or C<undef> followed by a 'string' as the second
argument. Returns a simple tree data structure. You could override this
method to apply your own transformations before the data structure is returned
to the caller.
 
=item new_hashref()
 
When the 'simple tree' data structure is being built, this method will be
called to create any required anonymous hashrefs.
 
=item sorted_keys(name, hashref)
 
Called when C<XMLout()> is translating a hashref to XML. This routine returns
a list of hash keys in the order that the corresponding attributes/elements
should appear in the output.
 
=item escape_value(string)
 
Called from C<XMLout()>, takes a string and returns a copy of the string with
XML character escaping rules applied.
 
=item numeric_escape(string)
 
Called from C<escape_value()>, to handle non-ASCII characters (depending on the
value of the NumericEscape option).
 
=item copy_hash(hashref, extra_key => value, ...)
 
Called from C<XMLout()>, when 'unfolding' a hash of hashes into an array of
hashes. You might wish to override this method if you're using tied hashes and
don't want them to get untied.
 
=back
 
=head2 Cache Methods
 
XML::Simple implements three caching schemes ('storable', 'memshare' and
'memcopy'). You can implement a custom caching scheme by implementing
two methods - one for reading from the cache and one for writing to it.
 
For example, you might implement a new 'dbm' scheme that stores cached data
structures using the L<MLDBM> module. First, you would add a
C<cache_read_dbm()> method which accepted a filename for use as a lookup key
and returned a data structure on success, or undef on failure. Then, you would
implement a C<cache_read_dbm()> method which accepted a data structure and a
filename.
 
You would use this caching scheme by specifying the option:
 
Cache => [ 'dbm' ]
 
=head1 STRICT MODE
 
If you import the B<XML::Simple> routines like this:
 
use XML::Simple qw(:strict);
 
the following common mistakes will be detected and treated as fatal errors
 
=over 4
 
=item *
 
Failing to explicitly set the C<KeyAttr> option - if you can't be bothered
reading about this option, turn it off with: KeyAttr => [ ]
 
=item *
 
Failing to explicitly set the C<ForceArray> option - if you can't be bothered
reading about this option, set it to the safest mode with: ForceArray => 1
 
=item *
 
Setting ForceArray to an array, but failing to list all the elements from the
KeyAttr hash.
 
=item *
 
Data error - KeyAttr is set to say { part => 'partnum' } but the XML contains
one or more E<lt>partE<gt> elements without a 'partnum' attribute (or nested
element). Note: if strict mode is not set but -w is, this condition triggers a
warning.
 
=item *
 
Data error - as above, but non-unique values are present in the key attribute
(eg: more than one E<lt>partE<gt> element with the same partnum). This will
also trigger a warning if strict mode is not enabled.
 
=item *
 
Data error - as above, but value of key attribute (eg: partnum) is not a
scalar string (due to nested elements etc). This will also trigger a warning
if strict mode is not enabled.
 
=back
 
=head1 SAX SUPPORT
 
From version 1.08_01, B<XML::Simple> includes support for SAX (the Simple API
for XML) - specifically SAX2.
 
In a typical SAX application, an XML parser (or SAX 'driver') module generates
SAX events (start of element, character data, end of element, etc) as it parses
an XML document and a 'handler' module processes the events to extract the
required data. This simple model allows for some interesting and powerful
possibilities:
 
=over 4
 
=item *
 
Applications written to the SAX API can extract data from huge XML documents
without the memory overheads of a DOM or tree API.
 
=item *
 
The SAX API allows for plug and play interchange of parser modules without
having to change your code to fit a new module's API. A number of SAX parsers
are available with capabilities ranging from extreme portability to blazing
performance.
 
=item *
 
A SAX 'filter' module can implement both a handler interface for receiving
data and a generator interface for passing modified data on to a downstream
handler. Filters can be chained together in 'pipelines'.
 
=item *
 
One filter module might split a data stream to direct data to two or more
downstream handlers.
 
=item *
 
Generating SAX events is not the exclusive preserve of XML parsing modules.
For example, a module might extract data from a relational database using DBI
and pass it on to a SAX pipeline for filtering and formatting.
 
=back
 
B<XML::Simple> can operate at either end of a SAX pipeline. For example,
you can take a data structure in the form of a hashref and pass it into a
SAX pipeline using the 'Handler' option on C<XMLout()>:
 
use XML::Simple;
use Some::SAX::Filter;
use XML::SAX::Writer;
 
my $ref = {
.... # your data here
};
 
my $writer = XML::SAX::Writer->new();
my $filter = Some::SAX::Filter->new(Handler => $writer);
my $simple = XML::Simple->new(Handler => $filter);
$simple->XMLout($ref);
 
You can also put B<XML::Simple> at the opposite end of the pipeline to take
advantage of the simple 'tree' data structure once the relevant data has been
isolated through filtering:
 
use XML::SAX;
use Some::SAX::Filter;
use XML::Simple;
 
my $simple = XML::Simple->new(ForceArray => 1, KeyAttr => ['partnum']);
my $filter = Some::SAX::Filter->new(Handler => $simple);
my $parser = XML::SAX::ParserFactory->parser(Handler => $filter);
 
my $ref = $parser->parse_uri('some_huge_file.xml');
 
print $ref->{part}->{'555-1234'};
 
You can build a filter by using an XML::Simple object as a handler and setting
its DataHandler option to point to a routine which takes the resulting tree,
modifies it and sends it off as SAX events to a downstream handler:
 
my $writer = XML::SAX::Writer->new();
my $filter = XML::Simple->new(
DataHandler => sub {
my $simple = shift;
my $data = shift;
 
# Modify $data here
 
$simple->XMLout($data, Handler => $writer);
}
);
my $parser = XML::SAX::ParserFactory->parser(Handler => $filter);
 
$parser->parse_uri($filename);
 
I<Note: In this last example, the 'Handler' option was specified in the call to
C<XMLout()> but it could also have been specified in the constructor>.
 
=head1 ENVIRONMENT
 
If you don't care which parser module B<XML::Simple> uses then skip this
section entirely (it looks more complicated than it really is).
 
B<XML::Simple> will default to using a B<SAX> parser if one is available or
B<XML::Parser> if SAX is not available.
 
You can dictate which parser module is used by setting either the environment
variable 'XML_SIMPLE_PREFERRED_PARSER' or the package variable
$XML::Simple::PREFERRED_PARSER to contain the module name. The following rules
are used:
 
=over 4
 
=item *
 
The package variable takes precedence over the environment variable if both are defined. To force B<XML::Simple> to ignore the environment settings and use
its default rules, you can set the package variable to an empty string.
 
=item *
 
If the 'preferred parser' is set to the string 'XML::Parser', then
L<XML::Parser> will be used (or C<XMLin()> will die if L<XML::Parser> is not
installed).
 
=item *
 
If the 'preferred parser' is set to some other value, then it is assumed to be
the name of a SAX parser module and is passed to L<XML::SAX::ParserFactory.>
If L<XML::SAX> is not installed, or the requested parser module is not
installed, then C<XMLin()> will die.
 
=item *
 
If the 'preferred parser' is not defined at all (the normal default
state), an attempt will be made to load L<XML::SAX>. If L<XML::SAX> is
installed, then a parser module will be selected according to
L<XML::SAX::ParserFactory>'s normal rules (which typically means the last SAX
parser installed).
 
=item *
 
if the 'preferred parser' is not defined and B<XML::SAX> is not
installed, then B<XML::Parser> will be used. C<XMLin()> will die if
L<XML::Parser> is not installed.
 
=back
 
Note: The B<XML::SAX> distribution includes an XML parser written entirely in
Perl. It is very portable but it is not very fast. You should consider
installing L<XML::LibXML> or L<XML::SAX::Expat> if they are available for your
platform.
 
=head1 ERROR HANDLING
 
The XML standard is very clear on the issue of non-compliant documents. An
error in parsing any single element (for example a missing end tag) must cause
the whole document to be rejected. B<XML::Simple> will die with an appropriate
message if it encounters a parsing error.
 
If dying is not appropriate for your application, you should arrange to call
C<XMLin()> in an eval block and look for errors in $@. eg:
 
my $config = eval { XMLin() };
PopUpMessage($@) if($@);
 
Note, there is a common misconception that use of B<eval> will significantly
slow down a script. While that may be true when the code being eval'd is in a
string, it is not true of code like the sample above.
 
=head1 EXAMPLES
 
When C<XMLin()> reads the following very simple piece of XML:
 
<opt username="testuser" password="frodo"></opt>
 
it returns the following data structure:
 
{
'username' => 'testuser',
'password' => 'frodo'
}
 
The identical result could have been produced with this alternative XML:
 
<opt username="testuser" password="frodo" />
 
Or this (although see 'ForceArray' option for variations):
 
<opt>
<username>testuser</username>
<password>frodo</password>
</opt>
 
Repeated nested elements are represented as anonymous arrays:
 
<opt>
<person firstname="Joe" lastname="Smith">
<email>joe@smith.com</email>
<email>jsmith@yahoo.com</email>
</person>
<person firstname="Bob" lastname="Smith">
<email>bob@smith.com</email>
</person>
</opt>
 
{
'person' => [
{
'email' => [
'joe@smith.com',
'jsmith@yahoo.com'
],
'firstname' => 'Joe',
'lastname' => 'Smith'
},
{
'email' => 'bob@smith.com',
'firstname' => 'Bob',
'lastname' => 'Smith'
}
]
}
 
Nested elements with a recognised key attribute are transformed (folded) from
an array into a hash keyed on the value of that attribute (see the C<KeyAttr>
option):
 
<opt>
<person key="jsmith" firstname="Joe" lastname="Smith" />
<person key="tsmith" firstname="Tom" lastname="Smith" />
<person key="jbloggs" firstname="Joe" lastname="Bloggs" />
</opt>
 
{
'person' => {
'jbloggs' => {
'firstname' => 'Joe',
'lastname' => 'Bloggs'
},
'tsmith' => {
'firstname' => 'Tom',
'lastname' => 'Smith'
},
'jsmith' => {
'firstname' => 'Joe',
'lastname' => 'Smith'
}
}
}
 
 
The <anon> tag can be used to form anonymous arrays:
 
<opt>
<head><anon>Col 1</anon><anon>Col 2</anon><anon>Col 3</anon></head>
<data><anon>R1C1</anon><anon>R1C2</anon><anon>R1C3</anon></data>
<data><anon>R2C1</anon><anon>R2C2</anon><anon>R2C3</anon></data>
<data><anon>R3C1</anon><anon>R3C2</anon><anon>R3C3</anon></data>
</opt>
 
{
'head' => [
[ 'Col 1', 'Col 2', 'Col 3' ]
],
'data' => [
[ 'R1C1', 'R1C2', 'R1C3' ],
[ 'R2C1', 'R2C2', 'R2C3' ],
[ 'R3C1', 'R3C2', 'R3C3' ]
]
}
 
Anonymous arrays can be nested to arbirtrary levels and as a special case, if
the surrounding tags for an XML document contain only an anonymous array the
arrayref will be returned directly rather than the usual hashref:
 
<opt>
<anon><anon>Col 1</anon><anon>Col 2</anon></anon>
<anon><anon>R1C1</anon><anon>R1C2</anon></anon>
<anon><anon>R2C1</anon><anon>R2C2</anon></anon>
</opt>
 
[
[ 'Col 1', 'Col 2' ],
[ 'R1C1', 'R1C2' ],
[ 'R2C1', 'R2C2' ]
]
 
Elements which only contain text content will simply be represented as a
scalar. Where an element has both attributes and text content, the element
will be represented as a hashref with the text content in the 'content' key
(see the C<ContentKey> option):
 
<opt>
<one>first</one>
<two attr="value">second</two>
</opt>
 
{
'one' => 'first',
'two' => { 'attr' => 'value', 'content' => 'second' }
}
 
Mixed content (elements which contain both text content and nested elements)
will be not be represented in a useful way - element order and significant
whitespace will be lost. If you need to work with mixed content, then
XML::Simple is not the right tool for your job - check out the next section.
 
=head1 WHERE TO FROM HERE?
 
B<XML::Simple> is able to present a simple API because it makes some
assumptions on your behalf. These include:
 
=over 4
 
=item *
 
You're not interested in text content consisting only of whitespace
 
=item *
 
You don't mind that when things get slurped into a hash the order is lost
 
=item *
 
You don't want fine-grained control of the formatting of generated XML
 
=item *
 
You would never use a hash key that was not a legal XML element name
 
=item *
 
You don't need help converting between different encodings
 
=back
 
In a serious XML project, you'll probably outgrow these assumptions fairly
quickly. This section of the document used to offer some advice on chosing a
more powerful option. That advice has now grown into the 'Perl-XML FAQ'
document which you can find at: L<http://perl-xml.sourceforge.net/faq/>
 
The advice in the FAQ boils down to a quick explanation of tree versus
event based parsers and then recommends:
 
For event based parsing, use SAX (do not set out to write any new code for
XML::Parser's handler API - it is obselete).
 
For tree-based parsing, you could choose between the 'Perlish' approach of
L<XML::Twig> and more standards based DOM implementations - preferably one with
XPath support.
 
 
=head1 SEE ALSO
 
B<XML::Simple> requires either L<XML::Parser> or L<XML::SAX>.
 
To generate documents with namespaces, L<XML::NamespaceSupport> is required.
 
The optional caching functions require L<Storable>.
 
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about XML::Simple are bundled with this
distribution as: L<XML::Simple::FAQ>
 
=head1 COPYRIGHT
 
Copyright 1999-2004 Grant McLean E<lt>grantm@cpan.orgE<gt>
 
This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the same terms as Perl itself.
 
=cut
 
 
/MissionCockpit/tags/V0.2.0/perl/lib/threads.pm
0,0 → 1,1056
package threads;
 
use 5.008;
 
use strict;
use warnings;
 
our $VERSION = '1.71';
my $XS_VERSION = $VERSION;
$VERSION = eval $VERSION;
 
# Verify this Perl supports threads
require Config;
if (! $Config::Config{useithreads}) {
die("This Perl not built to support threads\n");
}
 
# Complain if 'threads' is loaded after 'threads::shared'
if ($threads::shared::threads_shared) {
warn <<'_MSG_';
Warning, threads::shared has already been loaded. To
enable shared variables, 'use threads' must be called
before threads::shared or any module that uses it.
_MSG_
}
 
# Declare that we have been loaded
$threads::threads = 1;
 
# Load the XS code
require XSLoader;
XSLoader::load('threads', $XS_VERSION);
 
 
### Export ###
 
sub import
{
my $class = shift; # Not used
 
# Exported subroutines
my @EXPORT = qw(async);
 
# Handle args
while (my $sym = shift) {
if ($sym =~ /^(?:stack|exit)/i) {
if (defined(my $arg = shift)) {
if ($sym =~ /^stack/i) {
threads->set_stack_size($arg);
} else {
$threads::thread_exit_only = $arg =~ /^thread/i;
}
} else {
require Carp;
Carp::croak("threads: Missing argument for option: $sym");
}
 
} elsif ($sym =~ /^str/i) {
import overload ('""' => \&tid);
 
} elsif ($sym =~ /^(?::all|yield)$/) {
push(@EXPORT, qw(yield));
 
} else {
require Carp;
Carp::croak("threads: Unknown import option: $sym");
}
}
 
# Export subroutine names
my $caller = caller();
foreach my $sym (@EXPORT) {
no strict 'refs';
*{$caller.'::'.$sym} = \&{$sym};
}
 
# Set stack size via environment variable
if (exists($ENV{'PERL5_ITHREADS_STACK_SIZE'})) {
threads->set_stack_size($ENV{'PERL5_ITHREADS_STACK_SIZE'});
}
}
 
 
### Methods, etc. ###
 
# Exit from a thread (only)
sub exit
{
my ($class, $status) = @_;
if (! defined($status)) {
$status = 0;
}
 
# Class method only
if (ref($class)) {
require Carp;
Carp::croak('Usage: threads->exit(status)');
}
 
$class->set_thread_exit_only(1);
CORE::exit($status);
}
 
# 'Constant' args for threads->list()
sub threads::all { }
sub threads::running { 1 }
sub threads::joinable { 0 }
 
# 'new' is an alias for 'create'
*new = \&create;
 
# 'async' is a function alias for the 'threads->create()' method
sub async (&;@)
{
unshift(@_, 'threads');
# Use "goto" trick to avoid pad problems from 5.8.1 (fixed in 5.8.2)
goto &create;
}
 
# Thread object equality checking
use overload (
'==' => \&equal,
'!=' => sub { ! equal(@_) },
'fallback' => 1
);
 
1;
 
__END__
 
=head1 NAME
 
threads - Perl interpreter-based threads
 
=head1 VERSION
 
This document describes threads version 1.71
 
=head1 SYNOPSIS
 
use threads ('yield',
'stack_size' => 64*4096,
'exit' => 'threads_only',
'stringify');
 
sub start_thread {
my @args = @_;
print('Thread started: ', join(' ', @args), "\n");
}
my $thr = threads->create('start_thread', 'argument');
$thr->join();
 
threads->create(sub { print("I am a thread\n"); })->join();
 
my $thr2 = async { foreach (@files) { ... } };
$thr2->join();
if (my $err = $thr2->error()) {
warn("Thread error: $err\n");
}
 
# Invoke thread in list context (implicit) so it can return a list
my ($thr) = threads->create(sub { return (qw/a b c/); });
# or specify list context explicitly
my $thr = threads->create({'context' => 'list'},
sub { return (qw/a b c/); });
my @results = $thr->join();
 
$thr->detach();
 
# Get a thread's object
$thr = threads->self();
$thr = threads->object($tid);
 
# Get a thread's ID
$tid = threads->tid();
$tid = $thr->tid();
$tid = "$thr";
 
# Give other threads a chance to run
threads->yield();
yield();
 
# Lists of non-detached threads
my @threads = threads->list();
my $thread_count = threads->list();
 
my @running = threads->list(threads::running);
my @joinable = threads->list(threads::joinable);
 
# Test thread objects
if ($thr1 == $thr2) {
...
}
 
# Manage thread stack size
$stack_size = threads->get_stack_size();
$old_size = threads->set_stack_size(32*4096);
 
# Create a thread with a specific context and stack size
my $thr = threads->create({ 'context' => 'list',
'stack_size' => 32*4096,
'exit' => 'thread_only' },
\&foo);
 
# Get thread's context
my $wantarray = $thr->wantarray();
 
# Check thread's state
if ($thr->is_running()) {
sleep(1);
}
if ($thr->is_joinable()) {
$thr->join();
}
 
# Send a signal to a thread
$thr->kill('SIGUSR1');
 
# Exit a thread
threads->exit();
 
=head1 DESCRIPTION
 
Perl 5.6 introduced something called interpreter threads. Interpreter threads
are different from I<5005threads> (the thread model of Perl 5.005) by creating
a new Perl interpreter per thread, and not sharing any data or state between
threads by default.
 
Prior to Perl 5.8, this has only been available to people embedding Perl, and
for emulating fork() on Windows.
 
The I<threads> API is loosely based on the old Thread.pm API. It is very
important to note that variables are not shared between threads, all variables
are by default thread local. To use shared variables one must also use
L<threads::shared>:
 
use threads;
use threads::shared;
 
It is also important to note that you must enable threads by doing C<use
threads> as early as possible in the script itself, and that it is not
possible to enable threading inside an C<eval "">, C<do>, C<require>, or
C<use>. In particular, if you are intending to share variables with
L<threads::shared>, you must C<use threads> before you C<use threads::shared>.
(C<threads> will emit a warning if you do it the other way around.)
 
=over
 
=item $thr = threads->create(FUNCTION, ARGS)
 
This will create a new thread that will begin execution with the specified
entry point function, and give it the I<ARGS> list as parameters. It will
return the corresponding threads object, or C<undef> if thread creation failed.
 
I<FUNCTION> may either be the name of a function, an anonymous subroutine, or
a code ref.
 
my $thr = threads->create('func_name', ...);
# or
my $thr = threads->create(sub { ... }, ...);
# or
my $thr = threads->create(\&func, ...);
 
The C<-E<gt>new()> method is an alias for C<-E<gt>create()>.
 
=item $thr->join()
 
This will wait for the corresponding thread to complete its execution. When
the thread finishes, C<-E<gt>join()> will return the return value(s) of the
entry point function.
 
The context (void, scalar or list) for the return value(s) for C<-E<gt>join()>
is determined at the time of thread creation.
 
# Create thread in list context (implicit)
my ($thr1) = threads->create(sub {
my @results = qw(a b c);
return (@results);
});
# or (explicit)
my $thr1 = threads->create({'context' => 'list'},
sub {
my @results = qw(a b c);
return (@results);
});
# Retrieve list results from thread
my @res1 = $thr1->join();
 
# Create thread in scalar context (implicit)
my $thr2 = threads->create(sub {
my $result = 42;
return ($result);
});
# Retrieve scalar result from thread
my $res2 = $thr2->join();
 
# Create a thread in void context (explicit)
my $thr3 = threads->create({'void' => 1},
sub { print("Hello, world\n"); });
# Join the thread in void context (i.e., no return value)
$thr3->join();
 
See L</"THREAD CONTEXT"> for more details.
 
If the program exits without all threads having either been joined or
detached, then a warning will be issued.
 
Calling C<-E<gt>join()> or C<-E<gt>detach()> on an already joined thread will
cause an error to be thrown.
 
=item $thr->detach()
 
Makes the thread unjoinable, and causes any eventual return value to be
discarded. When the program exits, any detached threads that are still
running are silently terminated.
 
If the program exits without all threads having either been joined or
detached, then a warning will be issued.
 
Calling C<-E<gt>join()> or C<-E<gt>detach()> on an already detached thread
will cause an error to be thrown.
 
=item threads->detach()
 
Class method that allows a thread to detach itself.
 
=item threads->self()
 
Class method that allows a thread to obtain its own I<threads> object.
 
=item $thr->tid()
 
Returns the ID of the thread. Thread IDs are unique integers with the main
thread in a program being 0, and incrementing by 1 for every thread created.
 
=item threads->tid()
 
Class method that allows a thread to obtain its own ID.
 
=item "$thr"
 
If you add the C<stringify> import option to your C<use threads> declaration,
then using a threads object in a string or a string context (e.g., as a hash
key) will cause its ID to be used as the value:
 
use threads qw(stringify);
 
my $thr = threads->create(...);
print("Thread $thr started...\n"); # Prints out: Thread 1 started...
 
=item threads->object($tid)
 
This will return the I<threads> object for the I<active> thread associated
with the specified thread ID. Returns C<undef> if there is no thread
associated with the TID, if the thread is joined or detached, if no TID is
specified or if the specified TID is undef.
 
=item threads->yield()
 
This is a suggestion to the OS to let this thread yield CPU time to other
threads. What actually happens is highly dependent upon the underlying
thread implementation.
 
You may do C<use threads qw(yield)>, and then just use C<yield()> in your
code.
 
=item threads->list()
 
=item threads->list(threads::all)
 
=item threads->list(threads::running)
 
=item threads->list(threads::joinable)
 
With no arguments (or using C<threads::all>) and in a list context, returns a
list of all non-joined, non-detached I<threads> objects. In a scalar context,
returns a count of the same.
 
With a I<true> argument (using C<threads::running>), returns a list of all
non-joined, non-detached I<threads> objects that are still running.
 
With a I<false> argument (using C<threads::joinable>), returns a list of all
non-joined, non-detached I<threads> objects that have finished running (i.e.,
for which C<-E<gt>join()> will not I<block>).
 
=item $thr1->equal($thr2)
 
Tests if two threads objects are the same thread or not. This is overloaded
to the more natural forms:
 
if ($thr1 == $thr2) {
print("Threads are the same\n");
}
# or
if ($thr1 != $thr2) {
print("Threads differ\n");
}
 
(Thread comparison is based on thread IDs.)
 
=item async BLOCK;
 
C<async> creates a thread to execute the block immediately following
it. This block is treated as an anonymous subroutine, and so must have a
semicolon after the closing brace. Like C<threads-E<gt>create()>, C<async>
returns a I<threads> object.
 
=item $thr->error()
 
Threads are executed in an C<eval> context. This method will return C<undef>
if the thread terminates I<normally>. Otherwise, it returns the value of
C<$@> associated with the thread's execution status in its C<eval> context.
 
=item $thr->_handle()
 
This I<private> method returns the memory location of the internal thread
structure associated with a threads object. For Win32, this is a pointer to
the C<HANDLE> value returned by C<CreateThread> (i.e., C<HANDLE *>); for other
platforms, it is a pointer to the C<pthread_t> structure used in the
C<pthread_create> call (i.e., C<pthread_t *>).
 
This method is of no use for general Perl threads programming. Its intent is
to provide other (XS-based) thread modules with the capability to access, and
possibly manipulate, the underlying thread structure associated with a Perl
thread.
 
=item threads->_handle()
 
Class method that allows a thread to obtain its own I<handle>.
 
=back
 
=head1 EXITING A THREAD
 
The usual method for terminating a thread is to
L<return()|perlfunc/"return EXPR"> from the entry point function with the
appropriate return value(s).
 
=over
 
=item threads->exit()
 
If needed, a thread can be exited at any time by calling
C<threads-E<gt>exit()>. This will cause the thread to return C<undef> in a
scalar context, or the empty list in a list context.
 
When called from the I<main> thread, this behaves the same as C<exit(0)>.
 
=item threads->exit(status)
 
When called from a thread, this behaves like C<threads-E<gt>exit()> (i.e., the
exit status code is ignored).
 
When called from the I<main> thread, this behaves the same as C<exit(status)>.
 
=item die()
 
Calling C<die()> in a thread indicates an abnormal exit for the thread. Any
C<$SIG{__DIE__}> handler in the thread will be called first, and then the
thread will exit with a warning message that will contain any arguments passed
in the C<die()> call.
 
=item exit(status)
 
Calling L<exit()|perlfunc/"exit EXPR"> inside a thread causes the whole
application to terminate. Because of this, the use of C<exit()> inside
threaded code, or in modules that might be used in threaded applications, is
strongly discouraged.
 
If C<exit()> really is needed, then consider using the following:
 
threads->exit() if threads->can('exit'); # Thread friendly
exit(status);
 
=item use threads 'exit' => 'threads_only'
 
This globally overrides the default behavior of calling C<exit()> inside a
thread, and effectively causes such calls to behave the same as
C<threads-E<gt>exit()>. In other words, with this setting, calling C<exit()>
causes only the thread to terminate.
 
Because of its global effect, this setting should not be used inside modules
or the like.
 
The I<main> thread is unaffected by this setting.
 
=item threads->create({'exit' => 'thread_only'}, ...)
 
This overrides the default behavior of C<exit()> inside the newly created
thread only.
 
=item $thr->set_thread_exit_only(boolean)
 
This can be used to change the I<exit thread only> behavior for a thread after
it has been created. With a I<true> argument, C<exit()> will cause only the
thread to exit. With a I<false> argument, C<exit()> will terminate the
application.
 
The I<main> thread is unaffected by this call.
 
=item threads->set_thread_exit_only(boolean)
 
Class method for use inside a thread to change its own behavior for C<exit()>.
 
The I<main> thread is unaffected by this call.
 
=back
 
=head1 THREAD STATE
 
The following boolean methods are useful in determining the I<state> of a
thread.
 
=over
 
=item $thr->is_running()
 
Returns true if a thread is still running (i.e., if its entry point function
has not yet finished or exited).
 
=item $thr->is_joinable()
 
Returns true if the thread has finished running, is not detached and has not
yet been joined. In other words, the thread is ready to be joined, and a call
to C<$thr-E<gt>join()> will not I<block>.
 
=item $thr->is_detached()
 
Returns true if the thread has been detached.
 
=item threads->is_detached()
 
Class method that allows a thread to determine whether or not it is detached.
 
=back
 
=head1 THREAD CONTEXT
 
As with subroutines, the type of value returned from a thread's entry point
function may be determined by the thread's I<context>: list, scalar or void.
The thread's context is determined at thread creation. This is necessary so
that the context is available to the entry point function via
L<wantarray()|perlfunc/"wantarray">. The thread may then specify a value of
the appropriate type to be returned from C<-E<gt>join()>.
 
=head2 Explicit context
 
Because thread creation and thread joining may occur in different contexts, it
may be desirable to state the context explicitly to the thread's entry point
function. This may be done by calling C<-E<gt>create()> with a hash reference
as the first argument:
 
my $thr = threads->create({'context' => 'list'}, \&foo);
...
my @results = $thr->join();
 
In the above, the threads object is returned to the parent thread in scalar
context, and the thread's entry point function C<foo> will be called in list
(array) context such that the parent thread can receive a list (array) from
the C<-E<gt>join()> call. (C<'array'> is synonymous with C<'list'>.)
 
Similarly, if you need the threads object, but your thread will not be
returning a value (i.e., I<void> context), you would do the following:
 
my $thr = threads->create({'context' => 'void'}, \&foo);
...
$thr->join();
 
The context type may also be used as the I<key> in the hash reference followed
by a I<true> value:
 
threads->create({'scalar' => 1}, \&foo);
...
my ($thr) = threads->list();
my $result = $thr->join();
 
=head2 Implicit context
 
If not explicitly stated, the thread's context is implied from the context
of the C<-E<gt>create()> call:
 
# Create thread in list context
my ($thr) = threads->create(...);
 
# Create thread in scalar context
my $thr = threads->create(...);
 
# Create thread in void context
threads->create(...);
 
=head2 $thr->wantarray()
 
This returns the thread's context in the same manner as
L<wantarray()|perlfunc/"wantarray">.
 
=head2 threads->wantarray()
 
Class method to return the current thread's context. This returns the same
value as running L<wantarray()|perlfunc/"wantarray"> inside the current
thread's entry point function.
 
=head1 THREAD STACK SIZE
 
The default per-thread stack size for different platforms varies
significantly, and is almost always far more than is needed for most
applications. On Win32, Perl's makefile explicitly sets the default stack to
16 MB; on most other platforms, the system default is used, which again may be
much larger than is needed.
 
By tuning the stack size to more accurately reflect your application's needs,
you may significantly reduce your application's memory usage, and increase the
number of simultaneously running threads.
 
Note that on Windows, address space allocation granularity is 64 KB,
therefore, setting the stack smaller than that on Win32 Perl will not save any
more memory.
 
=over
 
=item threads->get_stack_size();
 
Returns the current default per-thread stack size. The default is zero, which
means the system default stack size is currently in use.
 
=item $size = $thr->get_stack_size();
 
Returns the stack size for a particular thread. A return value of zero
indicates the system default stack size was used for the thread.
 
=item $old_size = threads->set_stack_size($new_size);
 
Sets a new default per-thread stack size, and returns the previous setting.
 
Some platforms have a minimum thread stack size. Trying to set the stack size
below this value will result in a warning, and the minimum stack size will be
used.
 
Some Linux platforms have a maximum stack size. Setting too large of a stack
size will cause thread creation to fail.
 
If needed, C<$new_size> will be rounded up to the next multiple of the memory
page size (usually 4096 or 8192).
 
Threads created after the stack size is set will then either call
C<pthread_attr_setstacksize()> I<(for pthreads platforms)>, or supply the
stack size to C<CreateThread()> I<(for Win32 Perl)>.
 
(Obviously, this call does not affect any currently extant threads.)
 
=item use threads ('stack_size' => VALUE);
 
This sets the default per-thread stack size at the start of the application.
 
=item $ENV{'PERL5_ITHREADS_STACK_SIZE'}
 
The default per-thread stack size may be set at the start of the application
through the use of the environment variable C<PERL5_ITHREADS_STACK_SIZE>:
 
PERL5_ITHREADS_STACK_SIZE=1048576
export PERL5_ITHREADS_STACK_SIZE
perl -e'use threads; print(threads->get_stack_size(), "\n")'
 
This value overrides any C<stack_size> parameter given to C<use threads>. Its
primary purpose is to permit setting the per-thread stack size for legacy
threaded applications.
 
=item threads->create({'stack_size' => VALUE}, FUNCTION, ARGS)
 
To specify a particular stack size for any individual thread, call
C<-E<gt>create()> with a hash reference as the first argument:
 
my $thr = threads->create({'stack_size' => 32*4096}, \&foo, @args);
 
=item $thr2 = $thr1->create(FUNCTION, ARGS)
 
This creates a new thread (C<$thr2>) that inherits the stack size from an
existing thread (C<$thr1>). This is shorthand for the following:
 
my $stack_size = $thr1->get_stack_size();
my $thr2 = threads->create({'stack_size' => $stack_size}, FUNCTION, ARGS);
 
=back
 
=head1 THREAD SIGNALLING
 
When safe signals is in effect (the default behavior - see L</"Unsafe signals">
for more details), then signals may be sent and acted upon by individual
threads.
 
=over 4
 
=item $thr->kill('SIG...');
 
Sends the specified signal to the thread. Signal names and (positive) signal
numbers are the same as those supported by
L<kill()|perlfunc/"kill SIGNAL, LIST">. For example, 'SIGTERM', 'TERM' and
(depending on the OS) 15 are all valid arguments to C<-E<gt>kill()>.
 
Returns the thread object to allow for method chaining:
 
$thr->kill('SIG...')->join();
 
=back
 
Signal handlers need to be set up in the threads for the signals they are
expected to act upon. Here's an example for I<cancelling> a thread:
 
use threads;
 
sub thr_func
{
# Thread 'cancellation' signal handler
$SIG{'KILL'} = sub { threads->exit(); };
 
...
}
 
# Create a thread
my $thr = threads->create('thr_func');
 
...
 
# Signal the thread to terminate, and then detach
# it so that it will get cleaned up automatically
$thr->kill('KILL')->detach();
 
Here's another simplistic example that illustrates the use of thread
signalling in conjunction with a semaphore to provide rudimentary I<suspend>
and I<resume> capabilities:
 
use threads;
use Thread::Semaphore;
 
sub thr_func
{
my $sema = shift;
 
# Thread 'suspend/resume' signal handler
$SIG{'STOP'} = sub {
$sema->down(); # Thread suspended
$sema->up(); # Thread resumes
};
 
...
}
 
# Create a semaphore and pass it to a thread
my $sema = Thread::Semaphore->new();
my $thr = threads->create('thr_func', $sema);
 
# Suspend the thread
$sema->down();
$thr->kill('STOP');
 
...
 
# Allow the thread to continue
$sema->up();
 
CAVEAT: The thread signalling capability provided by this module does not
actually send signals via the OS. It I<emulates> signals at the Perl-level
such that signal handlers are called in the appropriate thread. For example,
sending C<$thr-E<gt>kill('STOP')> does not actually suspend a thread (or the
whole process), but does cause a C<$SIG{'STOP'}> handler to be called in that
thread (as illustrated above).
 
As such, signals that would normally not be appropriate to use in the
C<kill()> command (e.g., C<kill('KILL', $$)>) are okay to use with the
C<-E<gt>kill()> method (again, as illustrated above).
 
Correspondingly, sending a signal to a thread does not disrupt the operation
the thread is currently working on: The signal will be acted upon after the
current operation has completed. For instance, if the thread is I<stuck> on
an I/O call, sending it a signal will not cause the I/O call to be interrupted
such that the signal is acted up immediately.
 
Sending a signal to a terminated thread is ignored.
 
=head1 WARNINGS
 
=over 4
 
=item Perl exited with active threads:
 
If the program exits without all threads having either been joined or
detached, then this warning will be issued.
 
NOTE: If the I<main> thread exits, then this warning cannot be suppressed
using C<no warnings 'threads';> as suggested below.
 
=item Thread creation failed: pthread_create returned #
 
See the appropriate I<man> page for C<pthread_create> to determine the actual
cause for the failure.
 
=item Thread # terminated abnormally: ...
 
A thread terminated in some manner other than just returning from its entry
point function, or by using C<threads-E<gt>exit()>. For example, the thread
may have terminated because of an error, or by using C<die>.
 
=item Using minimum thread stack size of #
 
Some platforms have a minimum thread stack size. Trying to set the stack size
below this value will result in the above warning, and the stack size will be
set to the minimum.
 
=item Thread creation failed: pthread_attr_setstacksize(I<SIZE>) returned 22
 
The specified I<SIZE> exceeds the system's maximum stack size. Use a smaller
value for the stack size.
 
=back
 
If needed, thread warnings can be suppressed by using:
 
no warnings 'threads';
 
in the appropriate scope.
 
=head1 ERRORS
 
=over 4
 
=item This Perl not built to support threads
 
The particular copy of Perl that you're trying to use was not built using the
C<useithreads> configuration option.
 
Having threads support requires all of Perl and all of the XS modules in the
Perl installation to be rebuilt; it is not just a question of adding the
L<threads> module (i.e., threaded and non-threaded Perls are binary
incompatible.)
 
=item Cannot change stack size of an existing thread
 
The stack size of currently extant threads cannot be changed, therefore, the
following results in the above error:
 
$thr->set_stack_size($size);
 
=item Cannot signal threads without safe signals
 
Safe signals must be in effect to use the C<-E<gt>kill()> signalling method.
See L</"Unsafe signals"> for more details.
 
=item Unrecognized signal name: ...
 
The particular copy of Perl that you're trying to use does not support the
specified signal being used in a C<-E<gt>kill()> call.
 
=back
 
=head1 BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
 
Before you consider posting a bug report, please consult, and possibly post a
message to the discussion forum to see if what you've encountered is a known
problem.
 
=over
 
=item Thread-safe modules
 
See L<perlmod/"Making your module threadsafe"> when creating modules that may
be used in threaded applications, especially if those modules use non-Perl
data, or XS code.
 
=item Using non-thread-safe modules
 
Unfortunately, you may encounter Perl modules that are not I<thread-safe>.
For example, they may crash the Perl interpreter during execution, or may dump
core on termination. Depending on the module and the requirements of your
application, it may be possible to work around such difficulties.
 
If the module will only be used inside a thread, you can try loading the
module from inside the thread entry point function using C<require> (and
C<import> if needed):
 
sub thr_func
{
require Unsafe::Module
# Unsafe::Module->import(...);
 
....
}
 
If the module is needed inside the I<main> thread, try modifying your
application so that the module is loaded (again using C<require> and
C<-E<gt>import()>) after any threads are started, and in such a way that no
other threads are started afterwards.
 
If the above does not work, or is not adequate for your application, then file
a bug report on L<http://rt.cpan.org/Public/> against the problematic module.
 
=item Current working directory
 
On all platforms except MSWin32, the setting for the current working directory
is shared among all threads such that changing it in one thread (e.g., using
C<chdir()>) will affect all the threads in the application.
 
On MSWin32, each thread maintains its own the current working directory
setting.
 
=item Environment variables
 
Currently, on all platforms except MSWin32, all I<system> calls (e.g., using
C<system()> or back-ticks) made from threads use the environment variable
settings from the I<main> thread. In other words, changes made to C<%ENV> in
a thread will not be visible in I<system> calls made by that thread.
 
To work around this, set environment variables as part of the I<system> call.
For example:
 
my $msg = 'hello';
system("FOO=$msg; echo \$FOO"); # Outputs 'hello' to STDOUT
 
On MSWin32, each thread maintains its own set of environment variables.
 
=item Parent-child threads
 
On some platforms, it might not be possible to destroy I<parent> threads while
there are still existing I<child> threads.
 
=item Creating threads inside special blocks
 
Creating threads inside C<BEGIN>, C<CHECK> or C<INIT> blocks should not be
relied upon. Depending on the Perl version and the application code, results
may range from success, to (apparently harmless) warnings of leaked scalar, or
all the way up to crashing of the Perl interpreter.
 
=item Unsafe signals
 
Since Perl 5.8.0, signals have been made safer in Perl by postponing their
handling until the interpreter is in a I<safe> state. See
L<perl58delta/"Safe Signals"> and L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">
for more details.
 
Safe signals is the default behavior, and the old, immediate, unsafe
signalling behavior is only in effect in the following situations:
 
=over 4
 
=item * Perl has been built with C<PERL_OLD_SIGNALS> (see C<perl -V>).
 
=item * The environment variable C<PERL_SIGNALS> is set to C<unsafe> (see L<perlrun/"PERL_SIGNALS">).
 
=item * The module L<Perl::Unsafe::Signals> is used.
 
=back
 
If unsafe signals is in effect, then signal handling is not thread-safe, and
the C<-E<gt>kill()> signalling method cannot be used.
 
=item Returning closures from threads
 
Returning closures from threads should not be relied upon. Depending of the
Perl version and the application code, results may range from success, to
(apparently harmless) warnings of leaked scalar, or all the way up to crashing
of the Perl interpreter.
 
=item Returning objects from threads
 
Returning objects from threads does not work. Depending on the classes
involved, you may be able to work around this by returning a serialized
version of the object (e.g., using L<Data::Dumper> or L<Storable>), and then
reconstituting it in the joining thread. If you're using Perl 5.10.0 or
later, and if the class supports L<shared objects|threads::shared/"OBJECTS">,
you can pass them via L<shared queues| Thread::Queue>.
 
=item END blocks in threads
 
It is possible to add L<END blocks|perlmod/"BEGIN, UNITCHECK, CHECK, INIT and
END"> to threads by using L<require|perlfunc/"require VERSION"> or
L<eval|perlfunc/"eval EXPR"> with the appropriate code. These C<END> blocks
will then be executed when the thread's interpreter is destroyed (i.e., either
during a C<-E<gt>join()> call, or at program termination).
 
However, calling any L<threads> methods in such an C<END> block will most
likely I<fail> (e.g., the application may hang, or generate an error) due to
mutexes that are needed to control functionality within the L<threads> module.
 
For this reason, the use of C<END> blocks in threads is B<strongly>
discouraged.
 
=item Perl Bugs and the CPAN Version of L<threads>
 
Support for threads extends beyond the code in this module (i.e.,
F<threads.pm> and F<threads.xs>), and into the Perl interpreter itself. Older
versions of Perl contain bugs that may manifest themselves despite using the
latest version of L<threads> from CPAN. There is no workaround for this other
than upgrading to the latest version of Perl.
 
Even with the latest version of Perl, it is known that certain constructs
with threads may result in warning messages concerning leaked scalars or
unreferenced scalars. However, such warnings are harmless, and may safely be
ignored.
 
You can search for L<threads> related bug reports at
L<http://rt.cpan.org/Public/>. If needed submit any new bugs, problems,
patches, etc. to: L<http://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=threads>
 
=back
 
=head1 REQUIREMENTS
 
Perl 5.8.0 or later
 
=head1 SEE ALSO
 
L<threads> Discussion Forum on CPAN:
L<http://www.cpanforum.com/dist/threads>
 
Annotated POD for L<threads>:
L<http://annocpan.org/~JDHEDDEN/threads-1.71/threads.pm>
 
Source repository:
L<http://code.google.com/p/threads-shared/>
 
L<threads::shared>, L<perlthrtut>
 
L<http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2002/06/11/threads.html> and
L<http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2002/09/04/threads.html>
 
Perl threads mailing list:
L<http://lists.cpan.org/showlist.cgi?name=iThreads>
 
Stack size discussion:
L<http://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=532956>
 
=head1 AUTHOR
 
Artur Bergman E<lt>sky AT crucially DOT netE<gt>
 
CPAN version produced by Jerry D. Hedden <jdhedden AT cpan DOT org>
 
=head1 LICENSE
 
threads is released under the same license as Perl.
 
=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 
Richard Soderberg E<lt>perl AT crystalflame DOT netE<gt> -
Helping me out tons, trying to find reasons for races and other weird bugs!
 
Simon Cozens E<lt>simon AT brecon DOT co DOT ukE<gt> -
Being there to answer zillions of annoying questions
 
Rocco Caputo E<lt>troc AT netrus DOT netE<gt>
 
Vipul Ved Prakash E<lt>mail AT vipul DOT netE<gt> -
Helping with debugging
 
Dean Arnold E<lt>darnold AT presicient DOT comE<gt> -
Stack size API
 
=cut
/MissionCockpit/tags/V0.2.0/perl/site/lib/Geo/Ellipsoid.pm
0,0 → 1,950
# Geo::Ellipsoid
#
# This package implements an Ellipsoid class to perform latitude
# and longitude calculations on the surface of an ellipsoid.
#
# This is a Perl conversion of existing Fortran code (see
# ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS) and the author of this class makes no
# claims of originality. Nor can he even vouch for the
# results of the calculations, although they do seem to
# work for him and have been tested against other methods.
 
package Geo::Ellipsoid;
 
use warnings;
use strict;
use 5.006_00;
 
use Scalar::Util 'looks_like_number';
use Math::Trig;
use Carp;
 
=head1 NAME
 
Geo::Ellipsoid - Longitude and latitude calculations using an ellipsoid model.
 
=head1 VERSION
 
Version 1.12, released July 4, 2008.
 
=cut
 
our $VERSION = '1.12';
our $DEBUG = 0;
 
=head1 SYNOPSIS
 
use Geo::Ellipsoid;
$geo = Geo::Ellipsoid->new(ellipsoid=>'NAD27', units=>'degrees');
@origin = ( 37.619002, -122.374843 ); # SFO
@dest = ( 33.942536, -118.408074 ); # LAX
( $range, $bearing ) = $geo->to( @origin, @dest );
($lat,$lon) = $geo->at( @origin, 2000, 45.0 );
( $x, $y ) = $geo->displacement( @origin, $lat, $lon );
@pos = $geo->location( $lat, $lon, $x, $y );
 
=head1 DESCRIPTION
 
Geo::Ellipsoid performs geometrical calculations on the surface of
an ellipsoid. An ellipsoid is a three-dimension object formed from
the rotation of an ellipse about one of its axes. The approximate
shape of the earth is an ellipsoid, so Geo::Ellipsoid can accurately
calculate distance and bearing between two widely-separated locations
on the earth's surface.
 
The shape of an ellipsoid is defined by the lengths of its
semi-major and semi-minor axes. The shape may also be specifed by
the flattening ratio C<f> as:
 
f = ( semi-major - semi-minor ) / semi-major
which, since f is a small number, is normally given as the reciprocal
of the flattening C<1/f>.
 
The shape of the earth has been surveyed and estimated differently
at different times over the years. The two most common sets of values
used to describe the size and shape of the earth in the United States
are 'NAD27', dating from 1927, and 'WGS84', from 1984. United States
Geological Survey topographical maps, for example, use one or the
other of these values, and commonly-available Global Positioning
System (GPS) units can be set to use one or the other.
See L<"DEFINED ELLIPSOIDS"> below for the ellipsoid survey values
that may be selected for use by Geo::Ellipsoid.
 
=cut
 
# class data and constants
our $degrees_per_radian = 180/pi;
our $eps = 1.0e-23;
our $max_loop_count = 20;
our $twopi = 2 * pi;
our $halfpi = pi/2;
our %defaults = (
ellipsoid => 'WGS84',
units => 'radians',
distance_units => 'meter',
longitude => 0,
latitude => 1, # allows use of _normalize_output
bearing => 0,
);
our %distance = (
'foot' => 0.3048,
'kilometer' => 1_000,
'meter' => 1.0,
'mile' => 1_609.344,
'nm' => 1_852,
);
 
# set of ellipsoids that can be used.
# values are
# 1) a = semi-major (equatorial) radius of Ellipsoid
# 2) 1/f = reciprocal of flattening (f), the ratio of the semi-minor
# (polar) radius to the semi-major (equatorial) axis, or
# polar radius = equatorial radius * ( 1 - f )
 
our %ellipsoids = (
'AIRY' => [ 6377563.396, 299.3249646 ],
'AIRY-MODIFIED' => [ 6377340.189, 299.3249646 ],
'AUSTRALIAN' => [ 6378160.0, 298.25 ],
'BESSEL-1841' => [ 6377397.155, 299.1528128 ],
'CLARKE-1880' => [ 6378249.145, 293.465 ],
'EVEREST-1830' => [ 6377276.345, 300.8017 ],
'EVEREST-MODIFIED' => [ 6377304.063, 300.8017 ],
'FISHER-1960' => [ 6378166.0, 298.3 ],
'FISHER-1968' => [ 6378150.0, 298.3 ],
'GRS80' => [ 6378137.0, 298.25722210088 ],
'HOUGH-1956' => [ 6378270.0, 297.0 ],
'HAYFORD' => [ 6378388.0, 297.0 ],
'IAU76' => [ 6378140.0, 298.257 ],
'KRASSOVSKY-1938' => [ 6378245.0, 298.3 ],
'NAD27' => [ 6378206.4, 294.9786982138 ],
'NWL-9D' => [ 6378145.0, 298.25 ],
'SOUTHAMERICAN-1969' => [ 6378160.0, 298.25 ],
'SOVIET-1985' => [ 6378136.0, 298.257 ],
'WGS72' => [ 6378135.0, 298.26 ],
'WGS84' => [ 6378137.0, 298.257223563 ],
);
 
=head1 CONSTRUCTOR
 
=head2 new
 
The new() constructor may be called with a hash list to set the value of the
ellipsoid to be used, the value of the units to be used for angles and
distances, and whether or not the output range of longitudes and bearing
angles should be symmetric around zero or always greater than zero.
The initial default constructor is equivalent to the following:
 
my $geo = Geo::Ellipsoid->new(
ellipsoid => 'WGS84',
units => 'radians' ,
distance_units => 'meter',
longitude => 0,
bearing => 0,
);
The constructor arguments may be of any case and, with the exception of
the ellipsoid value, abbreviated to their first three characters.
Thus, ( UNI => 'DEG', DIS => 'FEE', Lon => 1, ell => 'NAD27', bEA => 0 )
is valid.
 
=cut
 
sub new
{
my( $class, %args ) = @_;
my $self = {%defaults};
print "new: @_\n" if $DEBUG;
foreach my $key ( keys %args ) {
my $val = $args{$key};
if( $key =~ /^ell/i ) {
$self->{ellipsoid} = uc $args{$key};
}elsif( $key =~ /^uni/i ) {
$self->{units} = $args{$key};
}elsif( $key =~ /^dis/i ) {
$self->{distance_units} = $args{$key};
}elsif( $key =~ /^lon/i ) {
$self->{longitude} = $args{$key};
}elsif( $key =~ /^bea/i ) {
$self->{bearing} = $args{$key};
}else{
carp("Unknown argument: $key => $args{$key}");
}
}
set_units($self,$self->{units});
set_ellipsoid($self,$self->{ellipsoid});
set_distance_unit($self,$self->{distance_units});
set_longitude_symmetric($self,$self->{longitude});
set_bearing_symmetric($self,$self->{bearing});
print
"Ellipsoid(units=>$self->{units},distance_units=>" .
"$self->{distance_units},ellipsoid=>$self->{ellipsoid}," .
"longitude=>$self->{longitude},bearing=>$self->{bearing})\n" if $DEBUG;
bless $self,$class;
return $self;
}
 
=head1 METHODS
 
=head2 set_units
 
Set the angle units used by the Geo::Ellipsoid object. The units may
also be set in the constructor of the object. The allowable values are
'degrees' or 'radians'. The default is 'radians'. The units value is
not case sensitive and may be abbreviated to 3 letters. The units of
angle apply to both input and output latitude, longitude, and bearing
values.
 
$geo->set_units('degrees');
 
=cut
 
sub set_units
{
my $self = shift;
my $units = shift;
if( $units =~ /deg/i ) {
$units = 'degrees';
}elsif( $units =~ /rad/i ) {
$units = 'radians';
}else{
croak("Invalid units specifier '$units' - please use either " .
"degrees or radians (the default)") unless $units =~ /rad/i;
}
$self->{units} = $units;
}
 
=head2 set_distance_unit
 
Set the distance unit used by the Geo::Ellipsoid object. The unit of
distance may also be set in the constructor of the object. The recognized
values are 'meter', 'kilometer', 'mile', 'nm' (nautical mile), or 'foot'.
The default is 'meter'. The value is not case sensitive and may be
abbreviated to 3 letters.
 
$geo->set_distance_unit('kilometer');
 
For any other unit of distance not recogized by this method, pass a
numerical argument representing the length of the distance unit in
meters. For example, to use units of furlongs, call
 
$geo->set_distance_unit(201.168);
 
The distance conversion factors used by this module are as follows:
 
Unit Units per meter
-------- ---------------
foot 0.3048
kilometer 1000.0
mile 1609.344
nm 1852.0
 
=cut
 
sub set_distance_unit
{
my $self = shift;
my $unit = shift;
print "distance unit = $unit\n" if $DEBUG;
 
my $conversion = 0;
 
if( defined $unit ) {
my( $key, $val );
while( ($key,$val) = each %distance ) {
my $re = substr($key,0,3);
print "trying ($key,$re,$val)\n" if $DEBUG;
if( $unit =~ /^$re/i ) {
$self->{distance_units} = $unit;
$conversion = $val;
 
# finish iterating to reset 'each' function call
while( each %distance ) {}
last;
}
}
 
if( $conversion == 0 ) {
if( looks_like_number($unit) ) {
$conversion = $unit;
}else{
carp("Unknown argument to set_distance_unit: $unit\nAssuming meters");
$conversion = 1.0;
}
}
}else{
carp("Missing or undefined argument to set_distance_unit: ".
"$unit\nAssuming meters");
$conversion = 1.0;
}
$self->{conversion} = $conversion;
}
 
=head2 set_ellipsoid
 
Set the ellipsoid to be used by the Geo::Ellipsoid object. See
L<"DEFINED ELLIPSOIDS"> below for the allowable values. The value
may also be set by the constructor. The default value is 'WGS84'.
 
$geo->set_ellipsoid('NAD27');
 
=cut
 
sub set_ellipsoid
{
my $self = shift;
my $ellipsoid = uc shift || $defaults{ellipsoid};
print " set ellipsoid to $ellipsoid\n" if $DEBUG;
unless( exists $ellipsoids{$ellipsoid} ) {
croak("Ellipsoid $ellipsoid does not exist - please use " .
"set_custom_ellipsoid to use an ellipsoid not in valid set");
}
$self->{ellipsoid} = $ellipsoid;
my( $major, $recip ) = @{$ellipsoids{$ellipsoid}};
$self->{equatorial} = $major;
if( $recip == 0 ) {
carp("Infinite flattening specified by ellipsoid -- assuming a sphere");
$self->{polar} = $self->{equatorial};
$self->{flattening} = 0;
$self->{eccentricity} = 0;
}else{
$self->{flattening} = ( 1.0 / $ellipsoids{$ellipsoid}[1]);
$self->{polar} = $self->{equatorial} * ( 1.0 - $self->{flattening} );
$self->{eccentricity} = sqrt( 2.0 * $self->{flattening} -
( $self->{flattening} * $self->{flattening} ) );
}
}
 
=head2 set_custom_ellipsoid
 
Sets the ellipsoid parameters to the specified ( major semiaxis and
reciprocal flattening. A zero value for the reciprocal flattening
will result in a sphere for the ellipsoid, and a warning message
will be issued.
 
$geo->set_custom_ellipsoid( 'sphere', 6378137, 0 );
=cut
 
sub set_custom_ellipsoid
{
my $self = shift;
my( $name, $major, $recip ) = @_;
$name = uc $name;
$recip = 0 unless defined $recip;
if( $major ) {
$ellipsoids{$name} = [ $major, $recip ];
}else{
croak("set_custom_ellipsoid called without semi-major radius parameter");
}
set_ellipsoid($self,$name);
}
 
=head2 set_longitude_symmetric
 
If called with no argument or a true argument, sets the range of output
values for longitude to be in the range [-pi,+pi) radians. If called with
a false or undefined argument, sets the output angle range to be
[0,2*pi) radians.
 
$geo->set_longitude_symmetric(1);
 
=cut
 
sub set_longitude_symmetric
{
my( $self, $sym ) = @_;
# see if argument passed
if( $#_ > 0 ) {
# yes -- use value passed
$self->{longitude} = $sym;
}else{
# no -- set to true
$self->{longitude} = 1;
}
}
 
=head2 set_bearing_symmetric
 
If called with no argument or a true argument, sets the range of output
values for bearing to be in the range [-pi,+pi) radians. If called with
a false or undefined argument, sets the output angle range to be
[0,2*pi) radians.
 
$geo->set_bearing_symmetric(1);
 
=cut
 
sub set_bearing_symmetric
{
my( $self, $sym ) = @_;
# see if argument passed
if( $#_ > 0 ) {
# yes -- use value passed
$self->{bearing} = $sym;
}else{
# no -- set to true
$self->{bearing} = 1;
}
}
 
=head2 set_defaults
 
Sets the defaults for the new method. Call with key, value pairs similar to
new.
 
$Geo::Ellipsoid->set_defaults(
units => 'degrees',
ellipsoid => 'GRS80',
distance_units => 'kilometer',
longitude => 1,
bearing => 0
);
 
Keys and string values (except for the ellipsoid identifier) may be shortened
to their first three letters and are case-insensitive:
 
$Geo::Ellipsoid->set_defaults(
uni => 'deg',
ell => 'GRS80',
dis => 'kil',
lon => 1,
bea => 0
);
 
=cut
 
sub set_defaults
{
my $self = shift;
my %args = @_;
foreach my $key ( keys %args ) {
if( $key =~ /^ell/i ) {
$defaults{ellipsoid} = uc $args{$key};
}elsif( $key =~ /^uni/i ) {
$defaults{units} = $args{$key};
}elsif( $key =~ /^dis/i ) {
$defaults{distance_units} = $args{$key};
}elsif( $key =~ /^lon/i ) {
$defaults{longitude} = $args{$key};
}elsif( $key =~ /^bea/i ) {
$defaults{bearing} = $args{$key};
}else{
croak("Geo::Ellipsoid::set_defaults called with invalid key: $key");
}
}
print "Defaults set to ($defaults{ellipsoid},$defaults{units}\n"
if $DEBUG;
}
 
=head2 scales
 
Returns a list consisting of the distance unit per angle of latitude
and longitude (degrees or radians) at the specified latitude.
These values may be used for fast approximations of distance
calculations in the vicinity of some location.
 
( $lat_scale, $lon_scale ) = $geo->scales($lat0);
$x = $lon_scale * ($lon - $lon0);
$y = $lat_scale * ($lat - $lat0);
 
=cut
 
sub scales
{
my $self = shift;
my $units = $self->{units};
my $lat = $_[0];
if( defined $lat ) {
$lat /= $degrees_per_radian if( $units eq 'degrees' );
}else{
carp("scales() method requires latitude argument; assuming 0");
$lat = 0;
}
my $aa = $self->{equatorial};
my $bb = $self->{polar};
my $a2 = $aa*$aa;
my $b2 = $bb*$bb;
my $d1 = $aa * cos($lat);
my $d2 = $bb * sin($lat);
my $d3 = $d1*$d1 + $d2*$d2;
my $d4 = sqrt($d3);
my $n1 = $aa * $bb;
my $latscl = ( $n1 * $n1 ) / ( $d3 * $d4 * $self->{conversion} );
my $lonscl = ( $aa * $d1 ) / ( $d4 * $self->{conversion} );
if( $DEBUG ) {
print "lat=$lat, aa=$aa, bb=$bb\nd1=$d1, d2=$d2, d3=$d3, d4=$d4\n";
print "latscl=$latscl, lonscl=$lonscl\n";
}
 
if( $self->{units} eq 'degrees' ) {
$latscl /= $degrees_per_radian;
$lonscl /= $degrees_per_radian;
}
return ( $latscl, $lonscl );
}
 
=head2 range
 
Returns the range in distance units between two specified locations given
as latitude, longitude pairs.
 
my $dist = $geo->range( $lat1, $lon1, $lat2, $lon2 );
my $dist = $geo->range( @origin, @destination );
 
=cut
sub range
{
my $self = shift;
my @args = _normalize_input($self->{units},@_);
my($range,$bearing) = _inverse($self,@args);
print "inverse(@_[1..4]) returns($range,$bearing)\n" if $DEBUG;
return $range;
}
 
=head2 bearing
 
Returns the bearing in degrees or radians from the first location to
the second. Zero bearing is true north.
 
my $bearing = $geo->bearing( $lat1, $lon1, $lat2, $lon2 );
 
=cut
 
sub bearing
{
my $self = shift;
my $units = $self->{units};
my @args = _normalize_input($units,@_);
my($range,$bearing) = _inverse($self,@args);
print "inverse(@args) returns($range,$bearing)\n" if $DEBUG;
my $t = $bearing;
$self->_normalize_output('bearing',$bearing);
print "_normalize_output($t) returns($bearing)\n" if $DEBUG;
return $bearing;
}
 
 
=head2 at
 
Returns the list (latitude,longitude) in degrees or radians that is a
specified range and bearing from a given location.
 
my( $lat2, $lon2 ) = $geo->at( $lat1, $lon1, $range, $bearing );
 
=cut
 
sub at
{
my $self = shift;
my $units = $self->{units};
my( $lat, $lon, $az ) = _normalize_input($units,@_[0,1,3]);
my $r = $_[2];
print "at($lat,$lon,$r,$az)\n" if $DEBUG;
my( $lat2, $lon2 ) = _forward($self,$lat,$lon,$r,$az);
print "_forward returns ($lat2,$lon2)\n" if $DEBUG;
$self->_normalize_output('longitude',$lon2);
$self->_normalize_output('latitude',$lat2);
return ( $lat2, $lon2 );
}
 
=head2 to
 
In list context, returns (range, bearing) between two specified locations.
In scalar context, returns just the range.
 
my( $dist, $theta ) = $geo->to( $lat1, $lon1, $lat2, $lon2 );
my $dist = $geo->to( $lat1, $lon1, $lat2, $lon2 );
 
=cut
 
sub to
{
my $self = shift;
my $units = $self->{units};
my @args = _normalize_input($units,@_);
print "to($units,@args)\n" if $DEBUG;
my($range,$bearing) = _inverse($self,@args);
print "to: inverse(@args) returns($range,$bearing)\n" if $DEBUG;
#$bearing *= $degrees_per_radian if $units eq 'degrees';
$self->_normalize_output('bearing',$bearing);
if( wantarray() ) {
return ( $range, $bearing );
}else{
return $range;
}
}
 
=head2 displacement
 
Returns the (x,y) displacement in distance units between the two specified
locations.
 
my( $x, $y ) = $geo->displacement( $lat1, $lon1, $lat2, $lon2 );
NOTE: The x and y displacements are only approximations and only valid
between two locations that are fairly near to each other. Beyond 10 kilometers
or more, the concept of X and Y on a curved surface loses its meaning.
 
=cut
 
sub displacement
{
my $self = shift;
print "displacement(",join(',',@_),"\n" if $DEBUG;
my @args = _normalize_input($self->{units},@_);
print "call _inverse(@args)\n" if $DEBUG;
my( $range, $bearing ) = _inverse($self,@args);
print "disp: _inverse(@args) returns ($range,$bearing)\n" if $DEBUG;
my $x = $range * sin($bearing);
my $y = $range * cos($bearing);
return ($x,$y);
}
 
=head2 location
 
Returns the list (latitude,longitude) of a location at a given (x,y)
displacement from a given location.
 
my @loc = $geo->location( $lat, $lon, $x, $y );
 
=cut
 
sub location
{
my $self = shift;
my $units = $self->{units};
my($lat,$lon,$x,$y) = @_;
my $range = sqrt( $x*$x+ $y*$y );
my $bearing = atan2($x,$y);
$bearing *= $degrees_per_radian if $units eq 'degrees';
print "location($lat,$lon,$x,$y,$range,$bearing)\n" if $DEBUG;
return $self->at($lat,$lon,$range,$bearing);
}
 
########################################################################
#
# internal functions
#
# inverse
#
# Calculate the displacement from origin to destination.
# The input to this subroutine is
# ( latitude-1, longitude-1, latitude-2, longitude-2 ) in radians.
#
# Return the results as the list (range,bearing) with range in the
# current specified distance unit and bearing in radians.
 
sub _inverse()
{
my $self = shift;
my( $lat1, $lon1, $lat2, $lon2 ) = (@_);
print "_inverse($lat1,$lon1,$lat2,$lon2)\n" if $DEBUG;
my $a = $self->{equatorial};
my $f = $self->{flattening};
my $r = 1.0 - $f;
my $tu1 = $r * sin($lat1) / cos($lat1);
my $tu2 = $r * sin($lat2) / cos($lat2);
my $cu1 = 1.0 / ( sqrt(($tu1*$tu1) + 1.0) );
my $su1 = $cu1 * $tu1;
my $cu2 = 1.0 / ( sqrt( ($tu2*$tu2) + 1.0 ));
my $s = $cu1 * $cu2;
my $baz = $s * $tu2;
my $faz = $baz * $tu1;
my $dlon = $lon2 - $lon1;
if( $DEBUG ) {
printf "lat1=%.8f, lon1=%.8f\n", $lat1, $lon1;
printf "lat2=%.8f, lon2=%.8f\n", $lat2, $lon2;
printf "r=%.8f, tu1=%.8f, tu2=%.8f\n", $r, $tu1, $tu2;
printf "faz=%.8f, dlon=%.8f\n", $faz, $dlon;
}
my $x = $dlon;
my $cnt = 0;
print "enter loop:\n" if $DEBUG;
my( $c2a, $c, $cx, $cy, $cz, $d, $del, $e, $sx, $sy, $y );
do {
printf " x=%.8f\n", $x if $DEBUG;
$sx = sin($x);
$cx = cos($x);
$tu1 = $cu2*$sx;
$tu2 = $baz - ($su1*$cu2*$cx);
printf " sx=%.8f, cx=%.8f, tu1=%.8f, tu2=%.8f\n",
$sx, $cx, $tu1, $tu2 if $DEBUG;
$sy = sqrt( $tu1*$tu1 + $tu2*$tu2 );
$cy = $s*$cx + $faz;
$y = atan2($sy,$cy);
my $sa;
if( $sy == 0.0 ) {
$sa = 1.0;
}else{
$sa = ($s*$sx) / $sy;
}
printf " sy=%.8f, cy=%.8f, y=%.8f, sa=%.8f\n", $sy, $cy, $y, $sa
if $DEBUG;
$c2a = 1.0 - ($sa*$sa);
$cz = $faz + $faz;
if( $c2a > 0.0 ) {
$cz = ((-$cz)/$c2a) + $cy;
}
$e = ( 2.0 * $cz * $cz ) - 1.0;
$c = ( ((( (-3.0 * $c2a) + 4.0)*$f) + 4.0) * $c2a * $f )/16.0;
$d = $x;
$x = ( ($e * $cy * $c + $cz) * $sy * $c + $y) * $sa;
$x = ( 1.0 - $c ) * $x * $f + $dlon;
$del = $d - $x;
if( $DEBUG ) {
printf " c2a=%.8f, cz=%.8f\n", $c2a, $cz;
printf " e=%.8f, d=%.8f\n", $e, $d;
printf " (d-x)=%.8g\n", $del;
}
}while( (abs($del) > $eps) && ( ++$cnt <= $max_loop_count ) );
$faz = atan2($tu1,$tu2);
$baz = atan2($cu1*$sx,($baz*$cx - $su1*$cu2)) + pi;
$x = sqrt( ((1.0/($r*$r)) -1.0 ) * $c2a+1.0 ) + 1.0;
$x = ($x-2.0)/$x;
$c = 1.0 - $x;
$c = (($x*$x)/4.0 + 1.0)/$c;
$d = ((0.375*$x*$x) - 1.0)*$x;
$x = $e*$cy;
if( $DEBUG ) {
printf "e=%.8f, cy=%.8f, x=%.8f\n", $e, $cy, $x;
printf "sy=%.8f, c=%.8f, d=%.8f\n", $sy, $c, $d;
printf "cz=%.8f, a=%.8f, r=%.8f\n", $cz, $a, $r;
}
$s = 1.0 - $e - $e;
$s = (((((((( $sy * $sy * 4.0 ) - 3.0) * $s * $cz * $d/6.0) - $x) *
$d /4.0) + $cz) * $sy * $d) + $y ) * $c * $a * $r;
printf "s=%.8f\n", $s if $DEBUG;
# adjust azimuth to (0,360) or (-180,180) as specified
if( $self->{symmetric} ) {
$faz += $twopi if $faz < -(pi);
$faz -= $twopi if $faz >= pi;
}else{
$faz += $twopi if $faz < 0;
$faz -= $twopi if $faz >= $twopi;
}
 
# return result
my @disp = ( ($s/$self->{conversion}), $faz );
print "disp = (@disp)\n" if $DEBUG;
return @disp;
}
 
# _forward
#
# Calculate the location (latitue,longitude) of a point
# given a starting point and a displacement from that
# point as (range,bearing)
#
sub _forward
{
my $self = shift;
my( $lat1, $lon1, $range, $bearing ) = @_;
 
if( $DEBUG ) {
printf "_forward(lat1=%.8f,lon1=%.8f,range=%.8f,bearing=%.8f)\n",
$lat1, $lon1, $range, $bearing;
}
 
my $eps = 0.5e-13;
 
my $a = $self->{equatorial};
my $f = $self->{flattening};
my $r = 1.0 - $f;
 
my $tu = $r * sin($lat1) / cos($lat1);
my $faz = $bearing;
my $s = $self->{conversion} * $range;
my $sf = sin($faz);
my $cf = cos($faz);
 
my $baz = 0.0;
$baz = 2.0 * atan2($tu,$cf) if( $cf != 0.0 );
my $cu = 1.0 / sqrt(1.0 + $tu*$tu);
my $su = $tu * $cu;
my $sa = $cu * $sf;
my $c2a = 1.0 - ($sa*$sa);
my $x = 1.0 + sqrt( (((1.0/($r*$r)) - 1.0 )*$c2a) +1.0);
$x = ($x-2.0)/$x;
my $c = 1.0 - $x;
$c = ((($x*$x)/4.0) + 1.0)/$c;
my $d = $x * ((0.375*$x*$x)-1.0);
$tu = (($s/$r)/$a)/$c;
my $y = $tu;
 
if( $DEBUG ) {
printf "r=%.8f, tu=%.8f, faz=%.8f\n", $r, $tu, $faz;
printf "baz=%.8f, sf=%.8f, cf=%.8f\n", $baz, $sf, $cf;
printf "cu=%.8f, su=%.8f, sa=%.8f\n", $cu, $su, $sa;
printf "x=%.8f, c=%.8f, y=%.8f\n", $x, $c, $y;
}
 
my( $cy, $cz, $e, $sy );
do {
$sy = sin($y);
$cy = cos($y);
$cz = cos($baz+$y);
$e = (2.0*$cz*$cz)-1.0;
$c = $y;
$x = $e * $cy;
$y = (2.0 * $e) - 1.0;
$y = ((((((((($sy*$sy*4.0)-3.0)*$y*$cz*$d)/6.0)+$x)*$d)/4.0)-$cz)*$sy*$d) +
$tu;
} while( abs($y-$c) > $eps );
 
$baz = ($cu*$cy*$cf) - ($su*$sy);
$c = $r*sqrt(($sa*$sa) + ($baz*$baz));
$d = $su*$cy + $cu*$sy*$cf;
my $lat2 = atan2($d,$c);
$c = $cu*$cy - $su*$sy*$cf;
$x = atan2($sy*$sf,$c);
$c = (((((-3.0*$c2a)+4.0)*$f)+4.0)*$c2a*$f)/16.0;
$d = (((($e*$cy*$c) + $cz)*$sy*$c)+$y)*$sa;
my $lon2 = $lon1 + $x - (1.0-$c)*$d*$f;
#$baz = atan2($sa,$baz) + pi;
 
# return result
return ($lat2,$lon2);
 
}
 
# _normalize_input
#
# Normalize a set of input angle values by converting to
# radians if given in degrees and by converting to the
# range [0,2pi), i.e. greater than or equal to zero and
# less than two pi.
#
sub _normalize_input
{
my $units = shift;
my @args = @_;
return map {
$_ = deg2rad($_) if $units eq 'degrees';
while( $_ < 0 ) { $_ += $twopi }
while( $_ >= $twopi ) { $_ -= $twopi }
$_
} @args;
}
 
# _normalize_output
#
# Normalize a set of output angle values by converting to
# degrees if needed and by converting to the range [-pi,+pi) or
# [0,2pi) as needed.
#
sub _normalize_output
{
my $self = shift;
my $elem = shift; # 'bearing' or 'longitude'
# adjust remaining input values by reference
for ( @_ ) {
if( $self->{$elem} ) {
# normalize to range [-pi,pi)
while( $_ < -(pi) ) { $_ += $twopi }
while( $_ >= pi ) { $_ -= $twopi }
}else{
# normalize to range [0,2*pi)
while( $_ < 0 ) { $_ += $twopi }
while( $_ >= $twopi ) { $_ -= $twopi }
}
$_ = rad2deg($_) if $self->{units} eq 'degrees';
}
}
 
=head1 DEFINED ELLIPSOIDS
 
The following ellipsoids are defined in Geo::Ellipsoid, with the
semi-major axis in meters and the reciprocal flattening as shown.
The default ellipsoid is WGS84.
 
Ellipsoid Semi-Major Axis (m.) 1/Flattening
--------- ------------------- ---------------
AIRY 6377563.396 299.3249646
AIRY-MODIFIED 6377340.189 299.3249646
AUSTRALIAN 6378160.0 298.25
BESSEL-1841 6377397.155 299.1528128
CLARKE-1880 6378249.145 293.465
EVEREST-1830 6377276.345 290.8017
EVEREST-MODIFIED 6377304.063 290.8017
FISHER-1960 6378166.0 298.3
FISHER-1968 6378150.0 298.3
GRS80 6378137.0 298.25722210088
HOUGH-1956 6378270.0 297.0
HAYFORD 6378388.0 297.0
IAU76 6378140.0 298.257
KRASSOVSKY-1938 6378245.0 298.3
NAD27 6378206.4 294.9786982138
NWL-9D 6378145.0 298.25
SOUTHAMERICAN-1969 6378160.0 298.25
SOVIET-1985 6378136.0 298.257
WGS72 6378135.0 298.26
WGS84 6378137.0 298.257223563
 
=head1 LIMITATIONS
 
The methods should not be used on points which are too near the poles
(above or below 89 degrees), and should not be used on points which
are antipodal, i.e., exactly on opposite sides of the ellipsoid. The
methods will not return valid results in these cases.
 
=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 
The conversion algorithms used here are Perl translations of Fortran
routines written by LCDR S<L. Pfeifer> NGS Rockville MD that implement
S<T. Vincenty's> Modified Rainsford's method with Helmert's elliptical
terms as published in "Direct and Inverse Solutions of Ellipsoid on
the Ellipsoid with Application of Nested Equations", S<T. Vincenty,>
Survey Review, April 1975.
 
The Fortran source code files inverse.for and forward.for
may be obtained from
 
ftp://ftp.ngs.noaa.gov/pub/pcsoft/for_inv.3d/source/
 
=head1 AUTHOR
 
Jim Gibson, C<< <Jim@Gibson.org> >>
 
=head1 BUGS
 
See LIMITATIONS, above.
 
Please report any bugs or feature requests to
C<bug-geo-ellipsoid@rt.cpan.org>, or through the web interface at
L<http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/ReportBug.html?Queue=Geo-Ellipsoid>.
 
=head1 COPYRIGHT & LICENSE
 
Copyright 2005-2008 Jim Gibson, all rights reserved.
 
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the same terms as Perl itself.
 
=head1 SEE ALSO
 
Geo::Distance, Geo::Ellipsoids
 
=cut
 
1; # End of Geo::Ellipsoid
/MissionCockpit/tags/V0.2.0/perl/site/lib/Time/HiRes.pm
0,0 → 1,591
package Time::HiRes;
 
use strict;
use vars qw($VERSION $XS_VERSION @ISA @EXPORT @EXPORT_OK $AUTOLOAD);
 
require Exporter;
require DynaLoader;
 
@ISA = qw(Exporter DynaLoader);
 
@EXPORT = qw( );
@EXPORT_OK = qw (usleep sleep ualarm alarm gettimeofday time tv_interval
getitimer setitimer nanosleep clock_gettime clock_getres
clock clock_nanosleep
CLOCK_HIGHRES CLOCK_MONOTONIC CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID
CLOCK_REALTIME CLOCK_SOFTTIME CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID
CLOCK_TIMEOFDAY CLOCKS_PER_SEC
ITIMER_REAL ITIMER_VIRTUAL ITIMER_PROF ITIMER_REALPROF
TIMER_ABSTIME
d_usleep d_ualarm d_gettimeofday d_getitimer d_setitimer
d_nanosleep d_clock_gettime d_clock_getres
d_clock d_clock_nanosleep
stat
);
 
$VERSION = '1.9719';
$XS_VERSION = $VERSION;
$VERSION = eval $VERSION;
 
sub AUTOLOAD {
my $constname;
($constname = $AUTOLOAD) =~ s/.*:://;
# print "AUTOLOAD: constname = $constname ($AUTOLOAD)\n";
die "&Time::HiRes::constant not defined" if $constname eq 'constant';
my ($error, $val) = constant($constname);
# print "AUTOLOAD: error = $error, val = $val\n";
if ($error) {
my (undef,$file,$line) = caller;
die "$error at $file line $line.\n";
}
{
no strict 'refs';
*$AUTOLOAD = sub { $val };
}
goto &$AUTOLOAD;
}
 
sub import {
my $this = shift;
for my $i (@_) {
if (($i eq 'clock_getres' && !&d_clock_getres) ||
($i eq 'clock_gettime' && !&d_clock_gettime) ||
($i eq 'clock_nanosleep' && !&d_clock_nanosleep) ||
($i eq 'clock' && !&d_clock) ||
($i eq 'nanosleep' && !&d_nanosleep) ||
($i eq 'usleep' && !&d_usleep) ||
($i eq 'ualarm' && !&d_ualarm)) {
require Carp;
Carp::croak("Time::HiRes::$i(): unimplemented in this platform");
}
}
Time::HiRes->export_to_level(1, $this, @_);
}
 
bootstrap Time::HiRes;
 
# Preloaded methods go here.
 
sub tv_interval {
# probably could have been done in C
my ($a, $b) = @_;
$b = [gettimeofday()] unless defined($b);
(${$b}[0] - ${$a}[0]) + ((${$b}[1] - ${$a}[1]) / 1_000_000);
}
 
# Autoload methods go after =cut, and are processed by the autosplit program.
 
1;
__END__
 
=head1 NAME
 
Time::HiRes - High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, interval timers
 
=head1 SYNOPSIS
 
use Time::HiRes qw( usleep ualarm gettimeofday tv_interval nanosleep
clock_gettime clock_getres clock_nanosleep clock
stat );
 
usleep ($microseconds);
nanosleep ($nanoseconds);
 
ualarm ($microseconds);
ualarm ($microseconds, $interval_microseconds);
 
$t0 = [gettimeofday];
($seconds, $microseconds) = gettimeofday;
 
$elapsed = tv_interval ( $t0, [$seconds, $microseconds]);
$elapsed = tv_interval ( $t0, [gettimeofday]);
$elapsed = tv_interval ( $t0 );
 
use Time::HiRes qw ( time alarm sleep );
 
$now_fractions = time;
sleep ($floating_seconds);
alarm ($floating_seconds);
alarm ($floating_seconds, $floating_interval);
 
use Time::HiRes qw( setitimer getitimer );
 
setitimer ($which, $floating_seconds, $floating_interval );
getitimer ($which);
 
use Time::HiRes qw( clock_gettime clock_getres clock_nanosleep
ITIMER_REAL ITIMER_VIRTUAL ITIMER_PROF ITIMER_REALPROF );
 
$realtime = clock_gettime(CLOCK_REALTIME);
$resolution = clock_getres(CLOCK_REALTIME);
 
clock_nanosleep(CLOCK_REALTIME, 1.5e9);
clock_nanosleep(CLOCK_REALTIME, time()*1e9 + 10e9, TIMER_ABSTIME);
 
my $ticktock = clock();
 
use Time::HiRes qw( stat );
 
my @stat = stat("file");
my @stat = stat(FH);
 
=head1 DESCRIPTION
 
The C<Time::HiRes> module implements a Perl interface to the
C<usleep>, C<nanosleep>, C<ualarm>, C<gettimeofday>, and
C<setitimer>/C<getitimer> system calls, in other words, high
resolution time and timers. See the L</EXAMPLES> section below and the
test scripts for usage; see your system documentation for the
description of the underlying C<nanosleep> or C<usleep>, C<ualarm>,
C<gettimeofday>, and C<setitimer>/C<getitimer> calls.
 
If your system lacks C<gettimeofday()> or an emulation of it you don't
get C<gettimeofday()> or the one-argument form of C<tv_interval()>.
If your system lacks all of C<nanosleep()>, C<usleep()>,
C<select()>, and C<poll>, you don't get C<Time::HiRes::usleep()>,
C<Time::HiRes::nanosleep()>, or C<Time::HiRes::sleep()>.
If your system lacks both C<ualarm()> and C<setitimer()> you don't get
C<Time::HiRes::ualarm()> or C<Time::HiRes::alarm()>.
 
If you try to import an unimplemented function in the C<use> statement
it will fail at compile time.
 
If your subsecond sleeping is implemented with C<nanosleep()> instead
of C<usleep()>, you can mix subsecond sleeping with signals since
C<nanosleep()> does not use signals. This, however, is not portable,
and you should first check for the truth value of
C<&Time::HiRes::d_nanosleep> to see whether you have nanosleep, and
then carefully read your C<nanosleep()> C API documentation for any
peculiarities.
 
If you are using C<nanosleep> for something else than mixing sleeping
with signals, give some thought to whether Perl is the tool you should
be using for work requiring nanosecond accuracies.
 
Remember that unless you are working on a I<hard realtime> system,
any clocks and timers will be imprecise, especially so if you are working
in a pre-emptive multiuser system. Understand the difference between
I<wallclock time> and process time (in UNIX-like systems the sum of
I<user> and I<system> times). Any attempt to sleep for X seconds will
most probably end up sleeping B<more> than that, but don't be surpised
if you end up sleeping slightly B<less>.
 
The following functions can be imported from this module.
No functions are exported by default.
 
=over 4
 
=item gettimeofday ()
 
In array context returns a two-element array with the seconds and
microseconds since the epoch. In scalar context returns floating
seconds like C<Time::HiRes::time()> (see below).
 
=item usleep ( $useconds )
 
Sleeps for the number of microseconds (millionths of a second)
specified. Returns the number of microseconds actually slept.
Can sleep for more than one second, unlike the C<usleep> system call.
Can also sleep for zero seconds, which often works like a I<thread yield>.
See also C<Time::HiRes::usleep()>, C<Time::HiRes::sleep()>, and
C<Time::HiRes::clock_nanosleep()>.
 
Do not expect usleep() to be exact down to one microsecond.
 
=item nanosleep ( $nanoseconds )
 
Sleeps for the number of nanoseconds (1e9ths of a second) specified.
Returns the number of nanoseconds actually slept (accurate only to
microseconds, the nearest thousand of them). Can sleep for more than
one second. Can also sleep for zero seconds, which often works like
a I<thread yield>. See also C<Time::HiRes::sleep()>,
C<Time::HiRes::usleep()>, and C<Time::HiRes::clock_nanosleep()>.
 
Do not expect nanosleep() to be exact down to one nanosecond.
Getting even accuracy of one thousand nanoseconds is good.
 
=item ualarm ( $useconds [, $interval_useconds ] )
 
Issues a C<ualarm> call; the C<$interval_useconds> is optional and
will be zero if unspecified, resulting in C<alarm>-like behaviour.
 
Returns the remaining time in the alarm in microseconds, or C<undef>
if an error occurred.
 
ualarm(0) will cancel an outstanding ualarm().
 
Note that the interaction between alarms and sleeps is unspecified.
 
=item tv_interval
 
tv_interval ( $ref_to_gettimeofday [, $ref_to_later_gettimeofday] )
 
Returns the floating seconds between the two times, which should have
been returned by C<gettimeofday()>. If the second argument is omitted,
then the current time is used.
 
=item time ()
 
Returns a floating seconds since the epoch. This function can be
imported, resulting in a nice drop-in replacement for the C<time>
provided with core Perl; see the L</EXAMPLES> below.
 
B<NOTE 1>: This higher resolution timer can return values either less
or more than the core C<time()>, depending on whether your platform
rounds the higher resolution timer values up, down, or to the nearest second
to get the core C<time()>, but naturally the difference should be never
more than half a second. See also L</clock_getres>, if available
in your system.
 
B<NOTE 2>: Since Sunday, September 9th, 2001 at 01:46:40 AM GMT, when
the C<time()> seconds since epoch rolled over to 1_000_000_000, the
default floating point format of Perl and the seconds since epoch have
conspired to produce an apparent bug: if you print the value of
C<Time::HiRes::time()> you seem to be getting only five decimals, not
six as promised (microseconds). Not to worry, the microseconds are
there (assuming your platform supports such granularity in the first
place). What is going on is that the default floating point format of
Perl only outputs 15 digits. In this case that means ten digits
before the decimal separator and five after. To see the microseconds
you can use either C<printf>/C<sprintf> with C<"%.6f">, or the
C<gettimeofday()> function in list context, which will give you the
seconds and microseconds as two separate values.
 
=item sleep ( $floating_seconds )
 
Sleeps for the specified amount of seconds. Returns the number of
seconds actually slept (a floating point value). This function can
be imported, resulting in a nice drop-in replacement for the C<sleep>
provided with perl, see the L</EXAMPLES> below.
 
Note that the interaction between alarms and sleeps is unspecified.
 
=item alarm ( $floating_seconds [, $interval_floating_seconds ] )
 
The C<SIGALRM> signal is sent after the specified number of seconds.
Implemented using C<setitimer()> if available, C<ualarm()> if not.
The C<$interval_floating_seconds> argument is optional and will be
zero if unspecified, resulting in C<alarm()>-like behaviour. This
function can be imported, resulting in a nice drop-in replacement for
the C<alarm> provided with perl, see the L</EXAMPLES> below.
 
Returns the remaining time in the alarm in seconds, or C<undef>
if an error occurred.
 
B<NOTE 1>: With some combinations of operating systems and Perl
releases C<SIGALRM> restarts C<select()>, instead of interrupting it.
This means that an C<alarm()> followed by a C<select()> may together
take the sum of the times specified for the the C<alarm()> and the
C<select()>, not just the time of the C<alarm()>.
 
Note that the interaction between alarms and sleeps is unspecified.
 
=item setitimer ( $which, $floating_seconds [, $interval_floating_seconds ] )
 
Start up an interval timer: after a certain time, a signal ($which) arrives,
and more signals may keep arriving at certain intervals. To disable
an "itimer", use C<$floating_seconds> of zero. If the
C<$interval_floating_seconds> is set to zero (or unspecified), the
timer is disabled B<after> the next delivered signal.
 
Use of interval timers may interfere with C<alarm()>, C<sleep()>,
and C<usleep()>. In standard-speak the "interaction is unspecified",
which means that I<anything> may happen: it may work, it may not.
 
In scalar context, the remaining time in the timer is returned.
 
In list context, both the remaining time and the interval are returned.
 
There are usually three or four interval timers (signals) available: the
C<$which> can be C<ITIMER_REAL>, C<ITIMER_VIRTUAL>, C<ITIMER_PROF>, or
C<ITIMER_REALPROF>. Note that which ones are available depends: true
UNIX platforms usually have the first three, but only Solaris seems to
have C<ITIMER_REALPROF> (which is used to profile multithreaded programs).
Win32 unfortunately does not haveinterval timers.
 
C<ITIMER_REAL> results in C<alarm()>-like behaviour. Time is counted in
I<real time>; that is, wallclock time. C<SIGALRM> is delivered when
the timer expires.
 
C<ITIMER_VIRTUAL> counts time in (process) I<virtual time>; that is,
only when the process is running. In multiprocessor/user/CPU systems
this may be more or less than real or wallclock time. (This time is
also known as the I<user time>.) C<SIGVTALRM> is delivered when the
timer expires.
 
C<ITIMER_PROF> counts time when either the process virtual time or when
the operating system is running on behalf of the process (such as I/O).
(This time is also known as the I<system time>.) (The sum of user
time and system time is known as the I<CPU time>.) C<SIGPROF> is
delivered when the timer expires. C<SIGPROF> can interrupt system calls.
 
The semantics of interval timers for multithreaded programs are
system-specific, and some systems may support additional interval
timers. For example, it is unspecified which thread gets the signals.
See your C<setitimer()> documentation.
 
=item getitimer ( $which )
 
Return the remaining time in the interval timer specified by C<$which>.
 
In scalar context, the remaining time is returned.
 
In list context, both the remaining time and the interval are returned.
The interval is always what you put in using C<setitimer()>.
 
=item clock_gettime ( $which )
 
Return as seconds the current value of the POSIX high resolution timer
specified by C<$which>. All implementations that support POSIX high
resolution timers are supposed to support at least the C<$which> value
of C<CLOCK_REALTIME>, which is supposed to return results close to the
results of C<gettimeofday>, or the number of seconds since 00:00:00:00
January 1, 1970 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Do not assume that
CLOCK_REALTIME is zero, it might be one, or something else.
Another potentially useful (but not available everywhere) value is
C<CLOCK_MONOTONIC>, which guarantees a monotonically increasing time
value (unlike time() or gettimeofday(), which can be adjusted).
See your system documentation for other possibly supported values.
 
=item clock_getres ( $which )
 
Return as seconds the resolution of the POSIX high resolution timer
specified by C<$which>. All implementations that support POSIX high
resolution timers are supposed to support at least the C<$which> value
of C<CLOCK_REALTIME>, see L</clock_gettime>.
 
=item clock_nanosleep ( $which, $nanoseconds, $flags = 0)
 
Sleeps for the number of nanoseconds (1e9ths of a second) specified.
Returns the number of nanoseconds actually slept. The $which is the
"clock id", as with clock_gettime() and clock_getres(). The flags
default to zero but C<TIMER_ABSTIME> can specified (must be exported
explicitly) which means that C<$nanoseconds> is not a time interval
(as is the default) but instead an absolute time. Can sleep for more
than one second. Can also sleep for zero seconds, which often works
like a I<thread yield>. See also C<Time::HiRes::sleep()>,
C<Time::HiRes::usleep()>, and C<Time::HiRes::nanosleep()>.
 
Do not expect clock_nanosleep() to be exact down to one nanosecond.
Getting even accuracy of one thousand nanoseconds is good.
 
=item clock()
 
Return as seconds the I<process time> (user + system time) spent by
the process since the first call to clock() (the definition is B<not>
"since the start of the process", though if you are lucky these times
may be quite close to each other, depending on the system). What this
means is that you probably need to store the result of your first call
to clock(), and subtract that value from the following results of clock().
 
The time returned also includes the process times of the terminated
child processes for which wait() has been executed. This value is
somewhat like the second value returned by the times() of core Perl,
but not necessarily identical. Note that due to backward
compatibility limitations the returned value may wrap around at about
2147 seconds or at about 36 minutes.
 
=item stat
 
=item stat FH
 
=item stat EXPR
 
As L<perlfunc/stat> but with the access/modify/change file timestamps
in subsecond resolution, if the operating system and the filesystem
both support such timestamps. To override the standard stat():
 
use Time::HiRes qw(stat);
 
Test for the value of &Time::HiRes::d_hires_stat to find out whether
the operating system supports subsecond file timestamps: a value
larger than zero means yes. There are unfortunately no easy
ways to find out whether the filesystem supports such timestamps.
UNIX filesystems often do; NTFS does; FAT doesn't (FAT timestamp
granularity is B<two> seconds).
 
A zero return value of &Time::HiRes::d_hires_stat means that
Time::HiRes::stat is a no-op passthrough for CORE::stat(),
and therefore the timestamps will stay integers. The same
thing will happen if the filesystem does not do subsecond timestamps,
even if the &Time::HiRes::d_hires_stat is non-zero.
 
In any case do not expect nanosecond resolution, or even a microsecond
resolution. Also note that the modify/access timestamps might have
different resolutions, and that they need not be synchronized, e.g.
if the operations are
 
write
stat # t1
read
stat # t2
 
the access time stamp from t2 need not be greater-than the modify
time stamp from t1: it may be equal or I<less>.
 
=back
 
=head1 EXAMPLES
 
use Time::HiRes qw(usleep ualarm gettimeofday tv_interval);
 
$microseconds = 750_000;
usleep($microseconds);
 
# signal alarm in 2.5s & every .1s thereafter
ualarm(2_500_000, 100_000);
# cancel that ualarm
ualarm(0);
 
# get seconds and microseconds since the epoch
($s, $usec) = gettimeofday();
 
# measure elapsed time
# (could also do by subtracting 2 gettimeofday return values)
$t0 = [gettimeofday];
# do bunch of stuff here
$t1 = [gettimeofday];
# do more stuff here
$t0_t1 = tv_interval $t0, $t1;
 
$elapsed = tv_interval ($t0, [gettimeofday]);
$elapsed = tv_interval ($t0); # equivalent code
 
#
# replacements for time, alarm and sleep that know about
# floating seconds
#
use Time::HiRes;
$now_fractions = Time::HiRes::time;
Time::HiRes::sleep (2.5);
Time::HiRes::alarm (10.6666666);
 
use Time::HiRes qw ( time alarm sleep );
$now_fractions = time;
sleep (2.5);
alarm (10.6666666);
 
# Arm an interval timer to go off first at 10 seconds and
# after that every 2.5 seconds, in process virtual time
 
use Time::HiRes qw ( setitimer ITIMER_VIRTUAL time );
 
$SIG{VTALRM} = sub { print time, "\n" };
setitimer(ITIMER_VIRTUAL, 10, 2.5);
 
use Time::HiRes qw( clock_gettime clock_getres CLOCK_REALTIME );
# Read the POSIX high resolution timer.
my $high = clock_getres(CLOCK_REALTIME);
# But how accurate we can be, really?
my $reso = clock_getres(CLOCK_REALTIME);
 
use Time::HiRes qw( clock_nanosleep TIMER_ABSTIME );
clock_nanosleep(CLOCK_REALTIME, 1e6);
clock_nanosleep(CLOCK_REALTIME, 2e9, TIMER_ABSTIME);
 
use Time::HiRes qw( clock );
my $clock0 = clock();
... # Do something.
my $clock1 = clock();
my $clockd = $clock1 - $clock0;
 
use Time::HiRes qw( stat );
my ($atime, $mtime, $ctime) = (stat("istics"))[8, 9, 10];
 
=head1 C API
 
In addition to the perl API described above, a C API is available for
extension writers. The following C functions are available in the
modglobal hash:
 
name C prototype
--------------- ----------------------
Time::NVtime double (*)()
Time::U2time void (*)(pTHX_ UV ret[2])
 
Both functions return equivalent information (like C<gettimeofday>)
but with different representations. The names C<NVtime> and C<U2time>
were selected mainly because they are operating system independent.
(C<gettimeofday> is Unix-centric, though some platforms like Win32 and
VMS have emulations for it.)
 
Here is an example of using C<NVtime> from C:
 
double (*myNVtime)(); /* Returns -1 on failure. */
SV **svp = hv_fetch(PL_modglobal, "Time::NVtime", 12, 0);
if (!svp) croak("Time::HiRes is required");
if (!SvIOK(*svp)) croak("Time::NVtime isn't a function pointer");
myNVtime = INT2PTR(double(*)(), SvIV(*svp));
printf("The current time is: %f\n", (*myNVtime)());
 
=head1 DIAGNOSTICS
 
=head2 useconds or interval more than ...
 
In ualarm() you tried to use number of microseconds or interval (also
in microseconds) more than 1_000_000 and setitimer() is not available
in your system to emulate that case.
 
=head2 negative time not invented yet
 
You tried to use a negative time argument.
 
=head2 internal error: useconds < 0 (unsigned ... signed ...)
 
Something went horribly wrong-- the number of microseconds that cannot
become negative just became negative. Maybe your compiler is broken?
 
=head2 useconds or uinterval equal to or more than 1000000
 
In some platforms it is not possible to get an alarm with subsecond
resolution and later than one second.
 
=head2 unimplemented in this platform
 
Some calls simply aren't available, real or emulated, on every platform.
 
=head1 CAVEATS
 
Notice that the core C<time()> maybe rounding rather than truncating.
What this means is that the core C<time()> may be reporting the time
as one second later than C<gettimeofday()> and C<Time::HiRes::time()>.
 
Adjusting the system clock (either manually or by services like ntp)
may cause problems, especially for long running programs that assume
a monotonously increasing time (note that all platforms do not adjust
time as gracefully as UNIX ntp does). For example in Win32 (and derived
platforms like Cygwin and MinGW) the Time::HiRes::time() may temporarily
drift off from the system clock (and the original time()) by up to 0.5
seconds. Time::HiRes will notice this eventually and recalibrate.
Note that since Time::HiRes 1.77 the clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
might help in this (in case your system supports CLOCK_MONOTONIC).
 
Some systems have APIs but not implementations: for example QNX and Haiku
have the interval timer APIs but not the functionality.
 
=head1 SEE ALSO
 
Perl modules L<BSD::Resource>, L<Time::TAI64>.
 
Your system documentation for C<clock>, C<clock_gettime>,
C<clock_getres>, C<clock_nanosleep>, C<clock_settime>, C<getitimer>,
C<gettimeofday>, C<setitimer>, C<sleep>, C<stat>, C<ualarm>.
 
=head1 AUTHORS
 
D. Wegscheid <wegscd@whirlpool.com>
R. Schertler <roderick@argon.org>
J. Hietaniemi <jhi@iki.fi>
G. Aas <gisle@aas.no>
 
=head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
 
Copyright (c) 1996-2002 Douglas E. Wegscheid. All rights reserved.
 
Copyright (c) 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Jarkko Hietaniemi.
All rights reserved.
 
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the same terms as Perl itself.
 
=cut
/MissionCockpit/tags/V0.2.0/perl/site/lib/Win32/SerialPort.pm
0,0 → 1,2969
package Win32::SerialPort;
 
use Win32;
use Win32API::CommPort qw( :STAT :PARAM 0.17 );
 
use Carp;
use strict;
 
use vars qw($VERSION @ISA @EXPORT @EXPORT_OK %EXPORT_TAGS);
$VERSION = '0.19';
 
require Exporter;
## require AutoLoader;
 
@ISA = qw( Exporter Win32API::CommPort );
# Items to export into callers namespace by default. Note: do not export
# names by default without a very good reason. Use EXPORT_OK instead.
# Do not simply export all your public functions/methods/constants.
 
@EXPORT= qw();
@EXPORT_OK= @Win32API::CommPort::EXPORT_OK;
%EXPORT_TAGS = %Win32API::CommPort::EXPORT_TAGS;
 
# parameters that must be included in a "save" and "checking subs"
 
my %validate = (
ALIAS => "alias",
BAUD => "baudrate",
BINARY => "binary",
DATA => "databits",
E_MSG => "error_msg",
EOFCHAR => "eof_char",
ERRCHAR => "error_char",
EVTCHAR => "event_char",
HSHAKE => "handshake",
PARITY => "parity",
PARITY_EN => "parity_enable",
RCONST => "read_const_time",
READBUF => "set_read_buf",
RINT => "read_interval",
RTOT => "read_char_time",
STOP => "stopbits",
U_MSG => "user_msg",
WCONST => "write_const_time",
WRITEBUF => "set_write_buf",
WTOT => "write_char_time",
XOFFCHAR => "xoff_char",
XOFFLIM => "xoff_limit",
XONCHAR => "xon_char",
XONLIM => "xon_limit",
intr => "is_stty_intr",
quit => "is_stty_quit",
s_eof => "is_stty_eof",
eol => "is_stty_eol",
erase => "is_stty_erase",
s_kill => "is_stty_kill",
bsdel => "stty_bsdel",
clear => "is_stty_clear",
echo => "stty_echo",
echoe => "stty_echoe",
echok => "stty_echok",
echonl => "stty_echonl",
echoke => "stty_echoke",
echoctl => "stty_echoctl",
istrip => "stty_istrip",
icrnl => "stty_icrnl",
ocrnl => "stty_ocrnl",
opost => "stty_opost",
igncr => "stty_igncr",
inlcr => "stty_inlcr",
onlcr => "stty_onlcr",
isig => "stty_isig",
icanon => "stty_icanon",
DVTYPE => "devicetype",
HNAME => "hostname",
HADDR => "hostaddr",
DATYPE => "datatype",
CFG_1 => "cfg_param_1",
CFG_2 => "cfg_param_2",
CFG_3 => "cfg_param_3",
);
 
# parameters supported by the stty method
 
my %opts = ( "intr" => "is_stty_intr:argv_char",
"quit" => "is_stty_quit:argv_char",
"eof" => "is_stty_eof:argv_char",
"eol" => "is_stty_eol:argv_char",
"erase" => "is_stty_erase:argv_char",
"kill" => "is_stty_kill:argv_char",
"echo" => "stty_echo:1",
"-echo" => "stty_echo:0",
"echoe" => "stty_echoe:1",
"-echoe" => "stty_echoe:0",
"echok" => "stty_echok:1",
"-echok" => "stty_echok:0",
"echonl" => "stty_echonl:1",
"-echonl" => "stty_echonl:0",
"echoke" => "stty_echoke:1",
"-echoke" => "stty_echoke:0",
"echoctl" => "stty_echoctl:1",
"-echoctl" => "stty_echoctl:0",
"istrip" => "stty_istrip:1",
"-istrip" => "stty_istrip:0",
"icrnl" => "stty_icrnl:1",
"-icrnl" => "stty_icrnl:0",
"ocrnl" => "stty_ocrnl:1",
"-ocrnl" => "stty_ocrnl:0",
"igncr" => "stty_igncr:1",
"-igncr" => "stty_igncr:0",
"inlcr" => "stty_inlcr:1",
"-inlcr" => "stty_inlcr:0",
"onlcr" => "stty_onlcr:1",
"-onlcr" => "stty_onlcr:0",
"opost" => "stty_opost:1",
"-opost" => "stty_opost:0",
"isig" => "stty_isig:1",
"-isig" => "stty_isig:0",
"icanon" => "stty_icanon:1",
"-icanon" => "stty_icanon:0",
"parenb" => "parity_enable:1",
"-parenb" => "parity_enable:0",
"inpck" => "parity_enable:1",
"-inpck" => "parity:none",
"cs5" => "databits:5",
"cs6" => "databits:6",
"cs7" => "databits:7",
"cs8" => "databits:8",
"cstopb" => "stopbits:2",
"-cstopb" => "stopbits:1",
"parodd" => "parity:odd",
"-parodd" => "parity:even",
"clocal" => "handshake:none",
"-clocal" => "handshake:dtr",
"crtscts" => "handshake:rts",
"-crtscts" => "handshake:none",
"ixon" => "handshake:xoff",
"-ixon" => "handshake:none",
"ixoff" => "handshake:xoff",
"-ixoff" => "handshake:none",
"start" => "xon_char:argv_char",
"stop" => "xoff_char:argv_char",
);
 
#### Package variable declarations ####
 
my @binary_opt = (0, 1);
my @byte_opt = (0, 255);
 
my $cfg_file_sig="Win32::SerialPort_Configuration_File -- DO NOT EDIT --\n";
 
my $Verbose = 0;
 
# test*.t only - suppresses default messages
sub set_test_mode_active {
return unless (@_ == 2);
Win32API::CommPort->set_no_messages($_[1]);
# object not defined but :: upsets strict
return (keys %validate);
}
 
sub new {
my $proto = shift;
my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
my $device = shift;
my @new_cmd = ($device);
my $quiet = shift;
if ($quiet) {
push @new_cmd, 1;
}
my $self = $class->SUPER::new(@new_cmd);
 
unless ($self) {
return 0 if ($quiet);
return;
}
 
# "private" data
$self->{"_DEBUG"} = 0;
$self->{U_MSG} = 0;
$self->{E_MSG} = 0;
$self->{OFS} = "";
$self->{ORS} = "";
$self->{"_T_INPUT"} = "";
$self->{"_LOOK"} = "";
$self->{"_LASTLOOK"} = "";
$self->{"_LASTLINE"} = "";
$self->{"_CLASTLINE"} = "";
$self->{"_SIZE"} = 1;
$self->{"_LMATCH"} = "";
$self->{"_LPATT"} = "";
$self->{"_PROMPT"} = "";
$self->{"_MATCH"} = [];
$self->{"_CMATCH"} = [];
@{ $self->{"_MATCH"} } = "\n";
@{ $self->{"_CMATCH"} } = "\n";
$self->{DVTYPE} = "none";
$self->{HNAME} = "localhost";
$self->{HADDR} = 0;
$self->{DATYPE} = "raw";
$self->{CFG_1} = "none";
$self->{CFG_2} = "none";
$self->{CFG_3} = "none";
 
# user settable options for lookfor (the "stty" collection)
# defaults like RedHat linux unless indicated
# char to abort nextline subroutine
$self->{intr} = "\cC"; # MUST be single char
 
# char to abort perl
$self->{quit} = "\cD"; # MUST be single char
 
# end_of_file char (linux typ: "\cD")
$self->{s_eof} = "\cZ"; # MUST be single char
 
# end_of_line char
$self->{eol} = "\cJ"; # MUST be single char
 
# delete one character from buffer (backspace)
$self->{erase} = "\cH"; # MUST be single char
 
# clear line buffer
$self->{s_kill} = "\cU"; # MUST be single char
 
# written after erase character
$self->{bsdel} = "\cH \cH";
 
# written after kill character
my $space76 = " "x76;
$self->{clear} = "\r$space76\r"; # 76 spaces
 
# echo every character
$self->{echo} = 0;
 
# echo erase character with bsdel string
$self->{echoe} = 1;
 
# echo \n after kill character
$self->{echok} = 1;
 
# echo \n
$self->{echonl} = 0;
 
# echo clear string after kill character
$self->{echoke} = 1; # linux console yes, serial no
 
# echo "^Char" for control chars
$self->{echoctl} = 0; # linux console yes, serial no
 
# strip input to 7-bits
$self->{istrip} = 0;
 
# map \r to \n on input
$self->{icrnl} = 0;
 
# map \r to \n on output
$self->{ocrnl} = 0;
 
# ignore \r on input
$self->{igncr} = 0;
 
# map \n to \r on input
$self->{inlcr} = 0;
 
# map \n to \r\n on output
$self->{onlcr} = 1;
 
# enable output mapping
$self->{opost} = 0;
 
# enable quit and intr characters
$self->{isig} = 0; # linux actually SUPPORTS signals
 
# enable erase and kill characters
$self->{icanon} = 0;
 
my $token;
my @bauds = $self->are_baudrate;
foreach $token (@bauds) { $opts{$token} = "baudrate:$token"; }
 
# initialize (in CommPort) and write_settings need these defined
$self->{"_N_U_MSG"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_E_MSG"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_ALIAS"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_intr"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_quit"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_s_eof"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_eol"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_erase"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_s_kill"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_bsdel"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_clear"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_echo"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_echoe"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_echok"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_echonl"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_echoke"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_echoctl"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_istrip"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_icrnl"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_ocrnl"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_opost"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_igncr"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_inlcr"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_onlcr"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_isig"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_icanon"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_DVTYPE"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_HNAME"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_HADDR"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_DATYPE"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_CFG_1"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_CFG_2"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_CFG_3"} = 0;
 
$self->{ALIAS} = $device; # so "\\.\+++" can be changed
$self->{DEVICE} = $device; # clone so NAME stays in CommPort
 
($self->{MAX_RXB}, $self->{MAX_TXB}) = $self->buffer_max;
 
bless ($self, $class);
return $self;
}
 
 
sub stty_intr {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{intr} = shift; }
return if (@_);
return $self->{intr};
}
 
sub stty_quit {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{quit} = shift; }
return if (@_);
return $self->{quit};
}
 
sub is_stty_eof {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{s_eof} = chr(shift); }
return if (@_);
return ord($self->{s_eof});
}
 
sub is_stty_eol {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{eol} = chr(shift); }
return if (@_);
return ord($self->{eol});
}
 
sub is_stty_quit {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{quit} = chr(shift); }
return if (@_);
return ord($self->{quit});
}
 
sub is_stty_intr {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{intr} = chr(shift); }
return if (@_);
return ord($self->{intr});
}
 
sub is_stty_erase {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{erase} = chr(shift); }
return if (@_);
return ord($self->{erase});
}
 
sub is_stty_kill {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{s_kill} = chr(shift); }
return if (@_);
return ord($self->{s_kill});
}
 
sub is_stty_clear {
my $self = shift;
my @chars;
if (@_ == 1) {
@chars = split (//, shift);
for (@chars) {
$_ = chr ( ord($_) - 32 );
}
$self->{clear} = join("", @chars);
return $self->{clear};
}
return if (@_);
@chars = split (//, $self->{clear});
for (@chars) {
$_ = chr ( ord($_) + 32 );
}
my $permute = join("", @chars);
return $permute;
}
 
sub stty_eof {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{s_eof} = shift; }
return if (@_);
return $self->{s_eof};
}
 
sub stty_eol {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{eol} = shift; }
return if (@_);
return $self->{eol};
}
 
sub stty_erase {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) {
my $tmp = shift;
return unless (length($tmp) == 1);
$self->{erase} = $tmp;
}
return if (@_);
return $self->{erase};
}
 
sub stty_kill {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) {
my $tmp = shift;
return unless (length($tmp) == 1);
$self->{s_kill} = $tmp;
}
return if (@_);
return $self->{s_kill};
}
 
sub stty_bsdel {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{bsdel} = shift; }
return if (@_);
return $self->{bsdel};
}
 
sub stty_clear {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{clear} = shift; }
return if (@_);
return $self->{clear};
}
 
sub stty_echo {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{echo} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{echo};
}
 
sub stty_echoe {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{echoe} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{echoe};
}
 
sub stty_echok {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{echok} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{echok};
}
 
sub stty_echonl {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{echonl} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{echonl};
}
 
sub stty_echoke {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{echoke} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{echoke};
}
 
sub stty_echoctl {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{echoctl} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{echoctl};
}
 
sub stty_istrip {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{istrip} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{istrip};
}
 
sub stty_icrnl {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{icrnl} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{icrnl};
}
 
sub stty_ocrnl {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{ocrnl} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{ocrnl};
}
 
sub stty_opost {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{opost} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{opost};
}
 
sub stty_igncr {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{igncr} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{igncr};
}
 
sub stty_inlcr {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{inlcr} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{inlcr};
}
 
sub stty_onlcr {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{onlcr} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{onlcr};
}
 
sub stty_isig {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{isig} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{isig};
}
 
sub stty_icanon {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{icanon} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return if (@_);
return $self->{icanon};
}
 
sub is_prompt {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) { $self->{"_PROMPT"} = shift; }
return if (@_);
return $self->{"_PROMPT"};
}
 
sub are_match {
my $self = shift;
my $pat;
my $patno = 0;
my $reno = 0;
my $re_next = 0;
if (@_) {
@{ $self->{"_MATCH"} } = @_;
if ($] >= 5.005) {
@{ $self->{"_CMATCH"} } = ();
while ($pat = shift) {
if ($re_next) {
$re_next = 0;
eval 'push (@{ $self->{"_CMATCH"} }, qr/$pat/)';
} else {
push (@{ $self->{"_CMATCH"} }, $pat);
}
if ($pat eq "-re") {
$re_next++;
}
}
} else {
@{ $self->{"_CMATCH"} } = @_;
}
}
return @{ $self->{"_MATCH"} };
}
 
 
# parse values for start/restart
sub get_start_values {
return unless (@_ == 2);
my $self = shift;
my $filename = shift;
 
unless ( open CF, "<$filename" ) {
carp "can't open file: $filename";
return;
}
my ($signature, $name, @values) = <CF>;
close CF;
unless ( $cfg_file_sig eq $signature ) {
carp "Invalid signature in $filename: $signature";
return;
}
chomp $name;
unless ( $self->{DEVICE} eq $name ) {
carp "Invalid Port DEVICE=$self->{DEVICE} in $filename: $name";
return;
}
if ($Verbose or not $self) {
print "signature = $signature";
print "name = $name\n";
if ($Verbose) {
print "values:\n";
foreach (@values) { print " $_"; }
}
}
my $item;
my $key;
my $value;
my $gosub;
my $fault = 0;
no strict 'refs'; # for $gosub
foreach $item (@values) {
chomp $item;
($key, $value) = split (/,/, $item);
if ($value eq "") { $fault++ }
else {
$gosub = $validate{$key};
unless (defined &$gosub ($self, $value)) {
carp "Invalid parameter for $key=$value ";
return;
}
}
}
use strict 'refs';
if ($fault) {
carp "Invalid value in $filename";
undef $self;
return;
}
1;
}
 
sub restart {
return unless (@_ == 2);
my $self = shift;
my $filename = shift;
 
unless ( $self->init_done ) {
carp "Can't restart before Port has been initialized";
return;
}
get_start_values($self, $filename);
write_settings($self);
}
 
sub start {
my $proto = shift;
my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
 
return unless (@_);
my $filename = shift;
 
unless ( open CF, "<$filename" ) {
carp "can't open file: $filename";
return;
}
my ($signature, $name, @values) = <CF>;
close CF;
unless ( $cfg_file_sig eq $signature ) {
carp "Invalid signature in $filename: $signature";
return;
}
chomp $name;
my $self = new ($class, $name);
if ($Verbose or not $self) {
print "signature = $signature";
print "class = $class\n";
print "name = $name\n";
if ($Verbose) {
print "values:\n";
foreach (@values) { print " $_"; }
}
}
if ($self) {
if ( get_start_values($self, $filename) ) {
write_settings ($self);
}
else {
carp "Invalid value in $filename";
undef $self;
return;
}
}
return $self;
}
 
sub write_settings {
my $self = shift;
my @items = keys %validate;
 
# initialize returns number of faults
if ( $self->initialize(@items) ) {
unless (nocarp) {
carp "write_settings failed, closing port";
$self->close;
}
return;
}
 
$self->update_DCB;
if ($Verbose) {
print "writing settings to $self->{ALIAS}\n";
}
1;
}
 
sub save {
my $self = shift;
my $item;
my $getsub;
my $value;
 
return unless (@_);
unless ($self->init_done) {
carp "can't save until init_done";
return;
}
 
my $filename = shift;
unless ( open CF, ">$filename" ) {
carp "can't open file: $filename";
return;
}
print CF "$cfg_file_sig";
print CF "$self->{DEVICE}\n";
# used to "reopen" so must be DEVICE=NAME
no strict 'refs'; # for $gosub
while (($item, $getsub) = each %validate) {
chomp $getsub;
$value = scalar &$getsub($self);
print CF "$item,$value\n";
}
use strict 'refs';
close CF;
if ($Verbose) {
print "wrote file $filename for $self->{ALIAS}\n";
}
1;
}
 
##### tied FileHandle support
sub TIEHANDLE {
my $proto = shift;
my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
 
return unless (@_);
 
my $self = start($class, shift);
return $self;
}
# WRITE this, LIST
# This method will be called when the handle is written to via the
# syswrite function.
 
sub WRITE {
return if (@_ < 3);
my $self = shift;
my $buf = shift;
my $len = shift;
my $offset = 0;
if (@_) { $offset = shift; }
my $out2 = substr($buf, $offset, $len);
return unless ($self->post_print($out2));
return length($out2);
}
 
# PRINT this, LIST
# This method will be triggered every time the tied handle is printed to
# with the print() function. Beyond its self reference it also expects
# the list that was passed to the print function.
sub PRINT {
my $self = shift;
return unless (@_);
my $ofs = $, ? $, : "";
if ($self->{OFS}) { $ofs = $self->{OFS}; }
my $ors = $\ ? $\ : "";
if ($self->{ORS}) { $ors = $self->{ORS}; }
my $output = join($ofs,@_);
$output .= $ors;
return $self->post_print($output);
}
 
sub output_field_separator {
my $self = shift;
my $prev = $self->{OFS};
if (@_) { $self->{OFS} = shift; }
return $prev;
}
 
sub output_record_separator {
my $self = shift;
my $prev = $self->{ORS};
if (@_) { $self->{ORS} = shift; }
return $prev;
}
 
sub post_print {
my $self = shift;
return unless (@_);
my $output = shift;
if ($self->stty_opost) {
if ($self->stty_ocrnl) { $output =~ s/\r/\n/osg; }
if ($self->stty_onlcr) { $output =~ s/\n/\r\n/osg; }
}
my $to_do = length($output);
my $done = 0;
my $written = 0;
while ($done < $to_do) {
my $out2 = substr($output, $done);
$written = $self->write($out2);
if (! defined $written) {
$^E = 1121; # ERROR_COUNTER_TIMEOUT
return;
}
return 0 unless ($written);
$done += $written;
}
$^E = 0;
1;
}
# PRINTF this, LIST
# This method will be triggered every time the tied handle is printed to
# with the printf() function. Beyond its self reference it also expects
# the format and list that was passed to the printf function.
sub PRINTF {
my $self = shift;
my $fmt = shift;
return unless ($fmt);
return unless (@_);
my $output = sprintf($fmt, @_);
$self->PRINT($output);
}
# READ this, LIST
# This method will be called when the handle is read from via the read
# or sysread functions.
 
sub READ {
return if (@_ < 3);
my $buf = \$_[1];
my ($self, $junk, $len, $offset) = @_;
unless (defined $offset) { $offset = 0; }
my $done = 0;
my $count_in = 0;
my $string_in = "";
my $in2 = "";
my $bufsize = $self->internal_buffer;
 
while ($done < $len) {
my $size = $len - $done;
if ($size > $bufsize) { $size = $bufsize; }
($count_in, $string_in) = $self->read($size);
if ($count_in) {
$in2 .= $string_in;
$done += $count_in;
$^E = 0;
}
elsif ($done) {
$^E = 0;
last;
}
else {
$^E = 1121; # ERROR_COUNTER_TIMEOUT
last;
}
}
my $tail = substr($$buf, $offset + $done);
my $head = substr($$buf, 0, $offset);
if ($self->{icrnl}) { $in2 =~ tr/\r/\n/; }
if ($self->{inlcr}) { $in2 =~ tr/\n/\r/; }
if ($self->{igncr}) { $in2 =~ s/\r//gos; }
$$buf = $head.$in2.$tail;
return $done if ($done);
return;
}
 
# READLINE this
# This method will be called when the handle is read from via <HANDLE>.
# The method should return undef when there is no more data.
sub READLINE {
my $self = shift;
return if (@_);
my $gotit = "";
my $match = "";
my $was;
 
if (wantarray) {
my @lines;
for (;;) {
$was = $self->reset_error;
if ($was) {
$^E = 1117; # ERROR_IO_DEVICE
return @lines if (@lines);
return;
}
if (! defined ($gotit = $self->streamline($self->{"_SIZE"}))) {
$^E = 1121; # ERROR_COUNTER_TIMEOUT
return @lines if (@lines);
return;
}
$match = $self->matchclear;
if ( ($gotit ne "") || ($match ne "") ) {
$^E = 0;
$gotit .= $match;
push (@lines, $gotit);
return @lines if ($gotit =~ /$self->{"_CLASTLINE"}/s);
}
}
}
else {
for (;;) {
$was = $self->reset_error;
if ($was) {
$^E = 1117; # ERROR_IO_DEVICE
return;
}
if (! defined ($gotit = $self->lookfor($self->{"_SIZE"}))) {
$^E = 1121; # ERROR_COUNTER_TIMEOUT
return;
}
$match = $self->matchclear;
if ( ($gotit ne "") || ($match ne "") ) {
$^E = 0;
return $gotit.$match; # traditional <HANDLE> behavior
}
}
}
}
# GETC this
# This method will be called when the getc function is called.
sub GETC {
my $self = shift;
my ($count, $in) = $self->read(1);
if ($count == 1) {
$^E = 0;
return $in;
}
else {
$^E = 1121; # ERROR_COUNTER_TIMEOUT
return;
}
}
# CLOSE this
# This method will be called when the handle is closed via the close
# function.
sub CLOSE {
my $self = shift;
my $success = $self->close;
if ($Verbose) { printf "CLOSE result:%d\n", $success; }
return $success;
}
# DESTROY this
# As with the other types of ties, this method will be called when the
# tied handle is about to be destroyed. This is useful for debugging and
# possibly cleaning up.
sub DESTROY {
my $self = shift;
if ($Verbose) { print "SerialPort::DESTROY called.\n"; }
$self->SUPER::DESTROY();
}
###############
 
sub alias {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) { $self->{ALIAS} = shift; } # should return true for legal names
return $self->{ALIAS};
}
 
sub user_msg {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) { $self->{U_MSG} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return wantarray ? @binary_opt : $self->{U_MSG};
}
 
sub error_msg {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) { $self->{E_MSG} = yes_true ( shift ) }
return wantarray ? @binary_opt : $self->{E_MSG};
}
 
sub devicetype {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) { $self->{DVTYPE} = shift; } # return true for legal names
return $self->{DVTYPE};
}
 
sub hostname {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) { $self->{HNAME} = shift; } # return true for legal names
return $self->{HNAME};
}
 
sub hostaddr {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) { $self->{HADDR} = shift; } # return true for assigned port
return $self->{HADDR};
}
 
sub datatype {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) { $self->{DATYPE} = shift; } # return true for legal types
return $self->{DATYPE};
}
 
sub cfg_param_1 {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) { $self->{CFG_1} = shift; } # return true for legal param
return $self->{CFG_1};
}
 
sub cfg_param_2 {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) { $self->{CFG_2} = shift; } # return true for legal param
return $self->{CFG_2};
}
 
sub cfg_param_3 {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) { $self->{CFG_3} = shift; } # return true for legal param
return $self->{CFG_3};
}
 
sub baudrate {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
unless ( defined $self->is_baudrate( shift ) ) {
if ($self->{U_MSG} or $Verbose) {
carp "Could not set baudrate on $self->{ALIAS}";
}
return;
}
}
return wantarray ? $self->are_baudrate : $self->is_baudrate;
}
 
sub status {
my $self = shift;
my $ok = 0;
my $fmask = 0;
my $v1 = $Verbose | $self->{"_DEBUG"};
my $v2 = $v1 | $self->{U_MSG};
my $v3 = $v1 | $self->{E_MSG};
 
my @stat = $self->is_status;
return unless (scalar @stat);
$fmask=$stat[ST_BLOCK];
if ($v1) { printf "BlockingFlags= %lx\n", $fmask; }
if ($v2 && $fmask) {
printf "Waiting for CTS\n" if ($fmask & BM_fCtsHold);
printf "Waiting for DSR\n" if ($fmask & BM_fDsrHold);
printf "Waiting for RLSD\n" if ($fmask & BM_fRlsdHold);
printf "Waiting for XON\n" if ($fmask & BM_fXoffHold);
printf "Waiting, XOFF was sent\n" if ($fmask & BM_fXoffSent);
printf "End_of_File received\n" if ($fmask & BM_fEof);
printf "Character waiting to TX\n" if ($fmask & BM_fTxim);
}
$fmask=$stat[ST_ERROR];
if ($v1) { printf "Error_BitMask= %lx\n", $fmask; }
if ($v3 && $fmask) {
# only prints if error is new (API resets each call)
printf "Invalid MODE or bad HANDLE\n" if ($fmask & CE_MODE);
printf "Receive Overrun detected\n" if ($fmask & CE_RXOVER);
printf "Buffer Overrun detected\n" if ($fmask & CE_OVERRUN);
printf "Parity Error detected\n" if ($fmask & CE_RXPARITY);
printf "Framing Error detected\n" if ($fmask & CE_FRAME);
printf "Break Signal detected\n" if ($fmask & CE_BREAK);
printf "Transmit Buffer is full\n" if ($fmask & CE_TXFULL);
}
return @stat;
}
 
sub handshake {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
unless ( $self->is_handshake(shift) ) {
if ($self->{U_MSG} or $Verbose) {
carp "Could not set handshake on $self->{ALIAS}";
}
return;
}
}
return wantarray ? $self->are_handshake : $self->is_handshake;
}
 
sub parity {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
unless ( $self->is_parity(shift) ) {
if ($self->{U_MSG} or $Verbose) {
carp "Could not set parity on $self->{ALIAS}";
}
return;
}
}
return wantarray ? $self->are_parity : $self->is_parity;
}
 
sub databits {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
unless ( $self->is_databits(shift) ) {
if ($self->{U_MSG} or $Verbose) {
carp "Could not set databits on $self->{ALIAS}";
}
return;
}
}
return wantarray ? $self->are_databits : $self->is_databits;
}
 
sub stopbits {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
unless ( $self->is_stopbits(shift) ) {
if ($self->{U_MSG} or $Verbose) {
carp "Could not set stopbits on $self->{ALIAS}";
}
return;
}
}
return wantarray ? $self->are_stopbits : $self->is_stopbits;
}
 
# single value for save/start
sub set_read_buf {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless (@_ == 1);
my $rbuf = int shift;
return unless (($rbuf > 0) and ($rbuf <= $self->{MAX_RXB}));
$self->is_read_buf($rbuf);
}
return $self->is_read_buf;
}
 
# single value for save/start
sub set_write_buf {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless (@_ == 1);
my $wbuf = int shift;
return unless (($wbuf >= 0) and ($wbuf <= $self->{MAX_TXB}));
$self->is_write_buf($wbuf);
}
return $self->is_write_buf;
}
 
sub buffers {
my $self = shift;
 
if (@_ == 2) {
my $rbuf = shift;
my $wbuf = shift;
unless (defined set_read_buf ($self, $rbuf)) {
if ($self->{U_MSG} or $Verbose) {
carp "Can't set read buffer on $self->{ALIAS}";
}
return;
}
unless (defined set_write_buf ($self, $wbuf)) {
if ($self->{U_MSG} or $Verbose) {
carp "Can't set write buffer on $self->{ALIAS}";
}
return;
}
$self->is_buffers($rbuf, $wbuf) || return;
}
elsif (@_) { return; }
return wantarray ? $self->are_buffers : 1;
}
 
sub read {
return unless (@_ == 2);
my $self = shift;
my $wanted = shift;
my $ok = 0;
my $result = "";
return unless ($wanted > 0);
 
my $got = $self->read_bg ($wanted);
 
if ($got != $wanted) {
($ok, $got, $result) = $self->read_done(1); # block until done
}
else { ($ok, $got, $result) = $self->read_done(0); }
print "read=$got\n" if ($Verbose);
return ($got, $result);
}
 
sub lookclear {
my $self = shift;
if (nocarp && (@_ == 1)) {
$self->{"_T_INPUT"} = shift;
}
$self->{"_LOOK"} = "";
$self->{"_LASTLOOK"} = "";
$self->{"_LMATCH"} = "";
$self->{"_LPATT"} = "";
return if (@_);
1;
}
 
sub linesize {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
my $val = int shift;
return if ($val < 0);
$self->{"_SIZE"} = $val;
}
return $self->{"_SIZE"};
}
 
sub lastline {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
$self->{"_LASTLINE"} = shift;
if ($] >= 5.005) {
eval '$self->{"_CLASTLINE"} = qr/$self->{"_LASTLINE"}/';
} else {
$self->{"_CLASTLINE"} = $self->{"_LASTLINE"};
}
}
return $self->{"_LASTLINE"};
}
 
sub matchclear {
my $self = shift;
my $found = $self->{"_LMATCH"};
$self->{"_LMATCH"} = "";
return if (@_);
return $found;
}
 
sub lastlook {
my $self = shift;
return if (@_);
return ( $self->{"_LMATCH"}, $self->{"_LASTLOOK"},
$self->{"_LPATT"}, $self->{"_LOOK"} );
}
 
sub lookfor {
my $self = shift;
my $size = 0;
if (@_) { $size = shift; }
my $loc = "";
my $count_in = 0;
my $string_in = "";
$self->{"_LMATCH"} = "";
$self->{"_LPATT"} = "";
 
if ( ! $self->{"_LOOK"} ) {
$loc = $self->{"_LASTLOOK"};
}
 
if ($size) {
my ($bbb, $iii, $ooo, $eee) = status($self);
if ($iii > $size) { $size = $iii; }
($count_in, $string_in) = $self->read($size);
return unless ($count_in);
$loc .= $string_in;
}
else {
$loc .= $self->input;
}
 
if ($loc ne "") {
if ($self->{icrnl}) { $loc =~ tr/\r/\n/; }
my $n_char;
my $mpos;
my $erase_is_bsdel = 0;
my $nl_after_kill = "";
my $clear_after_kill = 0;
my $echo_ctl = 0;
my $lookbuf;
my $re_next = 0;
my $got_match = 0;
my $pat;
my $lf_erase = "";
my $lf_kill = "";
my $lf_eof = "";
my $lf_quit = "";
my $lf_intr = "";
my $nl_2_crnl = 0;
my $cr_2_nl = 0;
 
if ($self->{opost}) {
$nl_2_crnl = $self->{onlcr};
$cr_2_nl = $self->{ocrnl};
}
 
if ($self->{echo}) {
$erase_is_bsdel = $self->{echoe};
if ($self->{echok}) {
$nl_after_kill = $self->{onlcr} ? "\r\n" : "\n";
}
$clear_after_kill = $self->{echoke};
$echo_ctl = $self->{echoctl};
}
 
if ($self->{icanon}) {
$lf_erase = $self->{erase};
$lf_kill = $self->{s_kill};
$lf_eof = $self->{s_eof};
}
 
if ($self->{isig}) {
$lf_quit = $self->{quit};
$lf_intr = $self->{intr};
}
my @loc_char = split (//, $loc);
while (defined ($n_char = shift @loc_char)) {
## printf STDERR "0x%x ", ord($n_char);
if ($n_char eq $lf_erase) {
if ($erase_is_bsdel && (length $self->{"_LOOK"}) ) {
$mpos = chop $self->{"_LOOK"};
$self->write($self->{bsdel});
if ($echo_ctl && (($mpos lt "@")|($mpos eq chr(127)))) {
$self->write($self->{bsdel});
}
}
}
elsif ($n_char eq $lf_kill) {
$self->{"_LOOK"} = "";
$self->write($self->{clear}) if ($clear_after_kill);
$self->write($nl_after_kill);
$self->write($self->{"_PROMPT"});
}
elsif ($n_char eq $lf_intr) {
$self->{"_LOOK"} = "";
$self->{"_LASTLOOK"} = "";
return;
}
elsif ($n_char eq $lf_quit) {
exit;
}
else {
$mpos = ord $n_char;
if ($self->{istrip}) {
if ($mpos > 127) { $n_char = chr($mpos - 128); }
}
$self->{"_LOOK"} .= $n_char;
## print $n_char;
if ($cr_2_nl) { $n_char =~ s/\r/\n/os; }
if ($nl_2_crnl) { $n_char =~ s/\n/\r\n/os; }
if (($mpos < 32) && $echo_ctl &&
($mpos != is_stty_eol($self))) {
$n_char = chr($mpos + 64);
$self->write("^$n_char");
}
elsif (($mpos == 127) && $echo_ctl) {
$self->write("^.");
}
elsif ($self->{echonl} && ($n_char =~ "\n")) {
# also writes "\r\n" for onlcr
$self->write($n_char);
}
elsif ($self->{echo}) {
# also writes "\r\n" for onlcr
$self->write($n_char);
}
$lookbuf = $self->{"_LOOK"};
if (($lf_eof ne "") and ($lookbuf =~ /$lf_eof$/)) {
$self->{"_LOOK"} = "";
$self->{"_LASTLOOK"} = "";
return $lookbuf;
}
$count_in = 0;
foreach $pat ( @{ $self->{"_CMATCH"} } ) {
if ($pat eq "-re") {
$re_next++;
$count_in++;
next;
}
if ($re_next) {
$re_next = 0;
# always at $lookbuf end when processing single char
if ( $lookbuf =~ s/$pat//s ) {
$self->{"_LMATCH"} = $&;
$got_match++;
}
}
elsif (($mpos = index($lookbuf, $pat)) > -1) {
$got_match++;
$lookbuf = substr ($lookbuf, 0, $mpos);
$self->{"_LMATCH"} = $pat;
}
if ($got_match) {
$self->{"_LPATT"} = $self->{"_MATCH"}[$count_in];
if (scalar @loc_char) {
$self->{"_LASTLOOK"} = join("", @loc_char);
## print ".$self->{\"_LASTLOOK\"}.";
}
else {
$self->{"_LASTLOOK"} = "";
}
$self->{"_LOOK"} = "";
return $lookbuf;
}
$count_in++;
}
}
}
}
return "";
}
 
sub streamline {
my $self = shift;
my $size = 0;
if (@_) { $size = shift; }
my $loc = "";
my $mpos;
my $count_in = 0;
my $string_in = "";
my $re_next = 0;
my $got_match = 0;
my $best_pos = 0;
my $pat;
my $match = "";
my $before = "";
my $after = "";
my $best_match = "";
my $best_before = "";
my $best_after = "";
my $best_pat = "";
$self->{"_LMATCH"} = "";
$self->{"_LPATT"} = "";
 
if ( ! $self->{"_LOOK"} ) {
$loc = $self->{"_LASTLOOK"};
}
 
if ($size) {
my ($bbb, $iii, $ooo, $eee) = status($self);
if ($iii > $size) { $size = $iii; }
($count_in, $string_in) = $self->read($size);
return unless ($count_in);
$loc .= $string_in;
}
else {
$loc .= $self->input;
}
 
if ($loc ne "") {
$self->{"_LOOK"} .= $loc;
$count_in = 0;
foreach $pat ( @{ $self->{"_CMATCH"} } ) {
if ($pat eq "-re") {
$re_next++;
$count_in++;
next;
}
if ($re_next) {
$re_next = 0;
if ( $self->{"_LOOK"} =~ /$pat/s ) {
( $match, $before, $after ) = ( $&, $`, $' );
$got_match++;
$mpos = length($before);
if ($mpos) {
next if ($best_pos && ($mpos > $best_pos));
$best_pos = $mpos;
$best_pat = $self->{"_MATCH"}[$count_in];
$best_match = $match;
$best_before = $before;
$best_after = $after;
} else {
$self->{"_LPATT"} = $self->{"_MATCH"}[$count_in];
$self->{"_LMATCH"} = $match;
$self->{"_LASTLOOK"} = $after;
$self->{"_LOOK"} = "";
return $before;
# pattern at start will be best
}
}
}
elsif (($mpos = index($self->{"_LOOK"}, $pat)) > -1) {
$got_match++;
$before = substr ($self->{"_LOOK"}, 0, $mpos);
if ($mpos) {
next if ($best_pos && ($mpos > $best_pos));
$best_pos = $mpos;
$best_pat = $pat;
$best_match = $pat;
$best_before = $before;
$mpos += length($pat);
$best_after = substr ($self->{"_LOOK"}, $mpos);
} else {
$self->{"_LPATT"} = $pat;
$self->{"_LMATCH"} = $pat;
$before = substr ($self->{"_LOOK"}, 0, $mpos);
$mpos += length($pat);
$self->{"_LASTLOOK"} = substr ($self->{"_LOOK"}, $mpos);
$self->{"_LOOK"} = "";
return $before;
# match at start will be best
}
}
$count_in++;
}
if ($got_match) {
$self->{"_LPATT"} = $best_pat;
$self->{"_LMATCH"} = $best_match;
$self->{"_LASTLOOK"} = $best_after;
$self->{"_LOOK"} = "";
return $best_before;
}
}
return "";
}
 
sub input {
return unless (@_ == 1);
my $self = shift;
my $result = "";
if (nocarp && $self->{"_T_INPUT"}) {
$result = $self->{"_T_INPUT"};
$self->{"_T_INPUT"} = "";
return $result;
}
my $ok = 0;
my $got_p = " "x4;
my ($bbb, $wanted, $ooo, $eee) = status($self);
return "" if ($eee);
return "" unless $wanted;
 
my $got = $self->read_bg ($wanted);
 
if ($got != $wanted) {
# block if unexpected happens
($ok, $got, $result) = $self->read_done(1); # block until done
}
else { ($ok, $got, $result) = $self->read_done(0); }
### print "input: got= $got result=$result\n";
return $got ? $result : "";
}
 
sub write {
return unless (@_ == 2);
my $self = shift;
my $wbuf = shift;
my $ok = 1;
 
return 0 if ($wbuf eq "");
my $lbuf = length ($wbuf);
 
my $written = $self->write_bg ($wbuf);
 
if ($written != $lbuf) {
($ok, $written) = $self->write_done(1); # block until done
}
if ($Verbose) {
print "wbuf=$wbuf\n";
print "lbuf=$lbuf\n";
print "written=$written\n";
}
return unless ($ok);
return $written;
}
 
sub transmit_char {
my $self = shift;
return unless (@_ == 1);
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v > 255));
return unless $self->xmit_imm_char ($v);
return wantarray ? @byte_opt : 1;
}
 
sub xon_char {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) {
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v > 255));
$self->is_xon_char($v);
}
return wantarray ? @byte_opt : $self->is_xon_char;
}
 
sub xoff_char {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) {
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v > 255));
$self->is_xoff_char($v);
}
return wantarray ? @byte_opt : $self->is_xoff_char;
}
 
sub eof_char {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) {
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v > 255));
$self->is_eof_char($v);
}
return wantarray ? @byte_opt : $self->is_eof_char;
}
 
sub event_char {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) {
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v > 255));
$self->is_event_char($v);
}
return wantarray ? @byte_opt : $self->is_event_char;
}
 
sub error_char {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) {
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v > 255));
$self->is_error_char($v);
}
return wantarray ? @byte_opt : $self->is_error_char;
}
 
sub xon_limit {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) {
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v > SHORTsize));
$self->is_xon_limit($v);
}
return wantarray ? (0, SHORTsize) : $self->is_xon_limit;
}
 
sub xoff_limit {
my $self = shift;
if (@_ == 1) {
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v > SHORTsize));
$self->is_xoff_limit($v);
}
return wantarray ? (0, SHORTsize) : $self->is_xoff_limit;
}
 
sub read_interval {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless defined $self->is_read_interval( shift );
}
return wantarray ? (0, LONGsize) : $self->is_read_interval;
}
 
sub read_char_time {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless defined $self->is_read_char_time( shift );
}
return wantarray ? (0, LONGsize) : $self->is_read_char_time;
}
 
sub read_const_time {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless defined $self->is_read_const_time( shift );
}
return wantarray ? (0, LONGsize) : $self->is_read_const_time;
}
 
sub write_const_time {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless defined $self->is_write_const_time( shift );
}
return wantarray ? (0, LONGsize) : $self->is_write_const_time;
}
 
sub write_char_time {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless defined $self->is_write_char_time( shift );
}
return wantarray ? (0, LONGsize) : $self->is_write_char_time;
}
 
 
# true/false parameters
 
sub binary {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless defined $self->is_binary( shift );
}
return $self->is_binary;
}
 
sub parity_enable {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
if ( $self->can_parity_enable ) {
$self->is_parity_enable( shift );
}
elsif ($self->{U_MSG}) {
carp "Can't set parity enable on $self->{ALIAS}";
}
}
return $self->is_parity_enable;
}
 
sub modemlines {
return unless (@_ == 1);
my $self = shift;
my $result = $self->is_modemlines;
if ($Verbose) {
print "CTS is ON\n" if ($result & MS_CTS_ON);
print "DSR is ON\n" if ($result & MS_DSR_ON);
print "RING is ON\n" if ($result & MS_RING_ON);
print "RLSD is ON\n" if ($result & MS_RLSD_ON);
}
return $result;
}
 
sub stty {
my $ob = shift;
my $token;
if (@_) {
my $ok = 1;
no strict 'refs'; # for $gosub
while ($token = shift) {
if (exists $opts{$token}) {
## print " $opts{$token}\n";
my ($gosub, $value) = split (':', $opts{$token});
if ($value eq "argv_char") { $value = &argv_char(shift); }
if (defined $value) {
&$gosub($ob, $value);
} else {
nocarp or carp "bad value for parameter $token\n";
$ok = 0;
}
}
else {
nocarp or carp "parameter $token not found\n";
$ok = 0;
}
}
use strict 'refs';
return $ok;
}
else {
my @settings; # array returned by ()
my $current = $ob->baudrate;
push @settings, "$current";
 
push @settings, "intr";
push @settings, cntl_char($ob->stty_intr);
push @settings, "quit";
push @settings, cntl_char($ob->stty_quit);
push @settings, "erase";
push @settings, cntl_char($ob->stty_erase);
push @settings, "kill";
push @settings, cntl_char($ob->stty_kill);
push @settings, "eof";
push @settings, cntl_char($ob->stty_eof);
push @settings, "eol";
push @settings, cntl_char($ob->stty_eol);
push @settings, "start";
push @settings, cntl_char(chr $ob->xon_char);
push @settings, "stop";
push @settings, cntl_char(chr $ob->xoff_char);
# "stop" is last CHAR type
 
push @settings, ($ob->stty_echo ? "" : "-")."echo";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_echoe ? "" : "-")."echoe";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_echok ? "" : "-")."echok";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_echonl ? "" : "-")."echonl";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_echoke ? "" : "-")."echoke";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_echoctl ? "" : "-")."echoctl";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_istrip ? "" : "-")."istrip";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_icrnl ? "" : "-")."icrnl";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_ocrnl ? "" : "-")."ocrnl";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_igncr ? "" : "-")."igncr";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_inlcr ? "" : "-")."inlcr";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_onlcr ? "" : "-")."onlcr";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_opost ? "" : "-")."opost";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_isig ? "" : "-")."isig";
push @settings, ($ob->stty_icanon ? "" : "-")."icanon";
 
$current = $ob->databits;
push @settings, "cs$current";
push @settings, (($ob->stopbits == 2) ? "" : "-")."cstopb";
 
$current = $ob->handshake;
push @settings, (($current eq "dtr") ? "" : "-")."clocal";
push @settings, (($current eq "rts") ? "" : "-")."crtscts";
push @settings, (($current eq "xoff") ? "" : "-")."ixoff";
push @settings, (($current eq "xoff") ? "" : "-")."ixon";
 
my $parity = $ob->parity;
if ($parity eq "none") {
push @settings, "-parenb";
push @settings, "-parodd";
push @settings, "-inpck";
}
else {
$current = $ob->is_parity_enable;
push @settings, ($current ? "" : "-")."parenb";
push @settings, (($parity eq "odd") ? "" : "-")."parodd";
push @settings, ($current ? "" : "-")."inpck";
# mark and space not supported
}
return @settings;
}
}
 
sub cntl_char {
my $n_char = shift;
return "<undef>" unless (defined $n_char);
my $pos = ord $n_char;
if ($pos < 32) {
$n_char = "^".chr($pos + 64);
}
if ($pos > 126) {
$n_char = sprintf "0x%x", $pos;
}
return $n_char;
}
 
sub argv_char {
my $n_char = shift;
return unless (defined $n_char);
my $pos = $n_char;
if ($n_char =~ s/^\^//) {
$pos = ord($n_char) - 64;
}
elsif ($n_char =~ s/^0x//) {
$pos = hex($n_char);
}
elsif ($n_char =~ /^0/) {
$pos = oct($n_char);
}
## print "pos = $pos\n";
return $pos;
}
 
sub debug {
my $self = shift;
if (ref($self)) {
if (@_) { $self->{"_DEBUG"} = yes_true ( shift ); }
else {
my $tmp = $self->{"_DEBUG"};
nocarp || carp "Debug level: $self->{ALIAS} = $tmp";
$self->debug_comm($tmp);
return $self->{"_DEBUG"};
}
} else {
$Verbose = yes_true ($self);
nocarp || carp "SerialPort Debug Class = $Verbose";
Win32API::CommPort::debug_comm($Verbose);
return $Verbose;
}
}
 
sub close {
my $self = shift;
 
return unless (defined $self->{ALIAS});
 
if ($Verbose or $self->{"_DEBUG"}) {
carp "Closing $self " . $self->{ALIAS};
}
my $success = $self->SUPER::close;
$self->{DEVICE} = undef;
$self->{ALIAS} = undef;
if ($Verbose) {
printf "SerialPort close result:%d\n", $success;
}
return $success;
}
 
1; # so the require or use succeeds
 
# Autoload methods go after =cut, and are processed by the autosplit program.
 
__END__
 
=pod
 
=head1 NAME
 
Win32::SerialPort - User interface to Win32 Serial API calls
 
=head1 SYNOPSIS
 
require 5.003;
use Win32::SerialPort qw( :STAT 0.19 );
 
=head2 Constructors
 
$PortObj = new Win32::SerialPort ($PortName, $quiet)
|| die "Can't open $PortName: $^E\n"; # $quiet is optional
 
$PortObj = start Win32::SerialPort ($Configuration_File_Name)
|| die "Can't start $Configuration_File_Name: $^E\n";
 
$PortObj = tie (*FH, 'Win32::SerialPort', $Configuration_File_Name)
|| die "Can't tie using $Configuration_File_Name: $^E\n";
 
 
=head2 Configuration Utility Methods
 
$PortObj->alias("MODEM1");
 
# before using start, restart, or tie
$PortObj->save($Configuration_File_Name)
|| warn "Can't save $Configuration_File_Name: $^E\n";
 
# after new, must check for failure
$PortObj->write_settings || undef $PortObj;
print "Can't change Device_Control_Block: $^E\n" unless ($PortObj);
 
# rereads file to either return open port to a known state
# or switch to a different configuration on the same port
$PortObj->restart($Configuration_File_Name)
|| warn "Can't reread $Configuration_File_Name: $^E\n";
 
# "app. variables" saved in $Configuration_File, not used internally
$PortObj->devicetype('none'); # CM11, CM17, 'weeder', 'modem'
$PortObj->hostname('localhost'); # for socket-based implementations
$PortObj->hostaddr(0); # false unless specified
$PortObj->datatype('raw'); # in case an application needs_to_know
$PortObj->cfg_param_1('none'); # null string '' hard to save/restore
$PortObj->cfg_param_2('none'); # 3 spares should be enough for now
$PortObj->cfg_param_3('none'); # one may end up as a log file path
 
# specials for test suite only
@necessary_param = Win32::SerialPort->set_test_mode_active(1);
$PortObj->lookclear("loopback to next 'input' method");
 
=head2 Configuration Parameter Methods
 
# most methods can be called three ways:
$PortObj->handshake("xoff"); # set parameter
$flowcontrol = $PortObj->handshake; # current value (scalar)
@handshake_opts = $PortObj->handshake; # permitted choices (list)
 
# similar
$PortObj->baudrate(9600);
$PortObj->parity("odd");
$PortObj->databits(8);
$PortObj->stopbits(1);
 
# range parameters return (minimum, maximum) in list context
$PortObj->xon_limit(100); # bytes left in buffer
$PortObj->xoff_limit(100); # space left in buffer
$PortObj->xon_char(0x11);
$PortObj->xoff_char(0x13);
$PortObj->eof_char(0x0);
$PortObj->event_char(0x0);
$PortObj->error_char(0); # for parity errors
 
$PortObj->buffers(4096, 4096); # read, write
# returns current in list context
 
$PortObj->read_interval(100); # max time between read char (milliseconds)
$PortObj->read_char_time(5); # avg time between read char
$PortObj->read_const_time(100); # total = (avg * bytes) + const
$PortObj->write_char_time(5);
$PortObj->write_const_time(100);
 
# true/false parameters (return scalar context only)
 
$PortObj->binary(T); # just say Yes (Win 3.x option)
$PortObj->parity_enable(F); # faults during input
$PortObj->debug(0);
 
=head2 Operating Methods
 
($BlockingFlags, $InBytes, $OutBytes, $LatchErrorFlags) = $PortObj->status
|| warn "could not get port status\n";
 
if ($BlockingFlags) { warn "Port is blocked"; }
if ($BlockingFlags & BM_fCtsHold) { warn "Waiting for CTS"; }
if ($LatchErrorFlags & CE_FRAME) { warn "Framing Error"; }
# The API resets errors when reading status, $LatchErrorFlags
# is all $ErrorFlags seen since the last reset_error
 
Additional useful constants may be exported eventually. If the only fault
action desired is a message, B<status> provides I<Built-In> BitMask processing:
 
$PortObj->error_msg(1); # prints hardware messages like "Framing Error"
$PortObj->user_msg(1); # prints function messages like "Waiting for CTS"
 
($count_in, $string_in) = $PortObj->read($InBytes);
warn "read unsuccessful\n" unless ($count_in == $InBytes);
 
$count_out = $PortObj->write($output_string);
warn "write failed\n" unless ($count_out);
warn "write incomplete\n" if ( $count_out != length($output_string) );
 
if ($string_in = $PortObj->input) { PortObj->write($string_in); }
# simple echo with no control character processing
 
$PortObj->transmit_char(0x03); # bypass buffer (and suspend)
 
$ModemStatus = $PortObj->modemlines;
if ($ModemStatus & $PortObj->MS_RLSD_ON) { print "carrier detected"; }
 
=head2 Methods used with Tied FileHandles
 
$PortObj = tie (*FH, 'Win32::SerialPort', $Configuration_File_Name)
|| die "Can't tie: $^E\n"; ## TIEHANDLE ##
 
print FH "text"; ## PRINT ##
$char = getc FH; ## GETC ##
syswrite FH, $out, length($out), 0; ## WRITE ##
$line = <FH>; ## READLINE ##
@lines = <FH>; ## READLINE ##
printf FH "received: %s", $line; ## PRINTF ##
read (FH, $in, 5, 0) or die "$^E"; ## READ ##
sysread (FH, $in, 5, 0) or die "$^E"; ## READ ##
close FH || warn "close failed"; ## CLOSE ##
undef $PortObj;
untie *FH; ## DESTROY ##
 
$PortObj->linesize(10); # with READLINE
$PortObj->lastline("_GOT_ME_"); # with READLINE, list only
 
$old_ors = $PortObj->output_record_separator("RECORD"); # with PRINT
$old_ofs = $PortObj->output_field_separator("COMMA"); # with PRINT
 
=head2 Destructors
 
$PortObj->close || warn "close failed";
# passed to CommPort to release port to OS - needed to reopen
# close will not usually DESTROY the object
# also called as: close FH || warn "close failed";
 
 
undef $PortObj;
# preferred unless reopen expected since it triggers DESTROY
# calls $PortObj->close but does not confirm success
# MUST precede untie - do all three IN THIS SEQUENCE before re-tie.
 
untie *FH;
 
=head2 Methods for I/O Processing
 
$PortObj->are_match("text", "\n"); # possible end strings
$PortObj->lookclear; # empty buffers
$PortObj->write("Feed Me:"); # initial prompt
$PortObj->is_prompt("More Food:"); # new prompt after "kill" char
 
my $gotit = "";
my $match1 = "";
until ("" ne $gotit) {
$gotit = $PortObj->lookfor; # poll until data ready
die "Aborted without match\n" unless (defined $gotit);
last if ($gotit);
$match1 = $PortObj->matchclear; # match is first thing received
last if ($match1);
sleep 1; # polling sample time
}
 
printf "gotit = %s\n", $gotit; # input BEFORE the match
my ($match, $after, $pattern, $instead) = $PortObj->lastlook;
# input that MATCHED, input AFTER the match, PATTERN that matched
# input received INSTEAD when timeout without match
 
if ($match1) {
$match = $match1;
}
printf "lastlook-match = %s -after = %s -pattern = %s\n",
$match, $after, $pattern;
 
$gotit = $PortObj->lookfor($count); # block until $count chars received
 
$PortObj->are_match("-re", "pattern", "text");
# possible match strings: "pattern" is a regular expression,
# "text" is a literal string
 
$gotit = $PortObj->streamline; # poll until data ready
$gotit = $PortObj->streamline($count);# block until $count chars received
# fast alternatives to lookfor with no character processing
 
$PortObj->stty_intr("\cC"); # char to abort lookfor method
$PortObj->stty_quit("\cD"); # char to abort perl
$PortObj->stty_eof("\cZ"); # end_of_file char
$PortObj->stty_eol("\cJ"); # end_of_line char
$PortObj->stty_erase("\cH"); # delete one character from buffer (backspace)
$PortObj->stty_kill("\cU"); # clear line buffer
 
$PortObj->is_stty_intr(3); # ord(char) to abort lookfor method
$qc = $PortObj->is_stty_quit; # ($qc == 4) for "\cD"
$PortObj->is_stty_eof(26);
$PortObj->is_stty_eol(10);
$PortObj->is_stty_erase(8);
$PortObj->is_stty_kill(21);
 
my $air = " "x76;
$PortObj->stty_clear("\r$air\r"); # written after kill character
$PortObj->is_stty_clear; # internal version for config file
$PortObj->stty_bsdel("\cH \cH"); # written after erase character
 
$PortObj->stty_echo(0); # echo every character
$PortObj->stty_echoe(1); # if echo erase character with bsdel string
$PortObj->stty_echok(1); # if echo \n after kill character
$PortObj->stty_echonl(0); # if echo \n
$PortObj->stty_echoke(1); # if echo clear string after kill character
$PortObj->stty_echoctl(0); # if echo "^Char" for control chars
$PortObj->stty_istrip(0); # strip input to 7-bits
$PortObj->stty_icrnl(0); # map \r to \n on input
$PortObj->stty_ocrnl(0); # map \r to \n on output
$PortObj->stty_igncr(0); # ignore \r on input
$PortObj->stty_inlcr(0); # map \n to \r on input
$PortObj->stty_onlcr(1); # map \n to \r\n on output
$PortObj->stty_opost(0); # enable output mapping
$PortObj->stty_isig(0); # enable quit and intr characters
$PortObj->stty_icanon(0); # enable erase and kill characters
 
$PortObj->stty("-icanon"); # disable eof, erase and kill char, Unix-style
@stty_all = $PortObj->stty(); # get all the parameters, Perl-style
 
=head2 Capability Methods inherited from Win32API::CommPort
 
These return scalar context only.
 
can_baud can_databits can_stopbits
can_dtrdsr can_handshake can_parity_check
can_parity_config can_parity_enable can_rlsd
can_16bitmode is_rs232 is_modem
can_rtscts can_xonxoff can_xon_char
can_spec_char can_interval_timeout can_total_timeout
buffer_max can_rlsd_config
 
=head2 Operating Methods inherited from Win32API::CommPort
 
write_bg write_done read_bg
read_done reset_error suspend_tx
resume_tx dtr_active rts_active
break_active xoff_active xon_active
purge_all purge_rx purge_tx
pulse_rts_on pulse_rts_off pulse_dtr_on
pulse_dtr_off ignore_null ignore_no_dsr
subst_pe_char abort_on_error output_xoff
output_dsr output_cts tx_on_xoff
input_xoff get_tick_count
 
 
=head1 DESCRIPTION
 
 
This module uses Win32API::CommPort for raw access to the API calls and
related constants. It provides an object-based user interface to allow
higher-level use of common API call sequences for dealing with serial
ports.
 
Uses features of the Win32 API to implement non-blocking I/O, serial
parameter setting, event-loop operation, and enhanced error handling.
 
To pass in C<NULL> as the pointer to an optional buffer, pass in C<$null=0>.
This is expected to change to an empty list reference, C<[]>, when Perl
supports that form in this usage.
 
=head2 Initialization
 
The primary constructor is B<new> with a F<PortName> (as the Registry
knows it) specified. This will create an object, and get the available
options and capabilities via the Win32 API. The object is a superset
of a B<Win32API::CommPort> object, and supports all of its methods.
The port is not yet ready for read/write access. First, the desired
I<parameter settings> must be established. Since these are tuning
constants for an underlying hardware driver in the Operating System,
they are all checked for validity by the methods that set them. The
B<write_settings> method writes a new I<Device Control Block> to the
driver. The B<write_settings> method will return true if the port is
ready for access or C<undef> on failure. Ports are opened for binary
transfers. A separate C<binmode> is not needed. The USER must release
the object if B<write_settings> does not succeed.
 
Version 0.15 adds an optional C<$quiet> parameter to B<new>. Failure
to open a port prints a error message to STDOUT by default. Since only
one application at a time can "own" the port, one source of failure was
"port in use". There was previously no way to check this without getting
a "fail message". Setting C<$quiet> disables this built-in message. It
also returns 0 instead of C<undef> if the port is unavailable (still FALSE,
used for testing this condition - other faults may still return C<undef>).
Use of C<$quiet> only applies to B<new>.
 
=over 8
 
Certain parameters I<MUST> be set before executing B<write_settings>.
Others will attempt to deduce defaults from the hardware or from other
parameters. The I<Required> parameters are:
 
=item baudrate
 
Any legal value.
 
=item parity
 
One of the following: "none", "odd", "even", "mark", "space".
If you select anything except "none", you will need to set B<parity_enable>.
 
=item databits
 
An integer from 5 to 8.
 
=item stopbits
 
Legal values are 1, 1.5, and 2. But 1.5 only works with 5 databits, 2 does
not work with 5 databits, and other combinations may not work on all
hardware if parity is also used.
 
=back
 
The B<handshake> setting is recommended but no longer required. Select one
of the following: "none", "rts", "xoff", "dtr".
 
Some individual parameters (eg. baudrate) can be changed after the
initialization is completed. These will be validated and will
update the I<Device Control Block> as required. The B<save>
method will write the current parameters to a file that B<start, tie,> and
B<restart> can use to reestablish a functional setup.
 
$PortObj = new Win32::SerialPort ($PortName, $quiet)
|| die "Can't open $PortName: $^E\n"; # $quiet is optional
 
$PortObj->user_msg(ON);
$PortObj->databits(8);
$PortObj->baudrate(9600);
$PortObj->parity("none");
$PortObj->stopbits(1);
$PortObj->handshake("rts");
$PortObj->buffers(4096, 4096);
 
$PortObj->write_settings || undef $PortObj;
 
$PortObj->save($Configuration_File_Name);
 
$PortObj->baudrate(300);
$PortObj->restart($Configuration_File_Name); # back to 9600 baud
 
$PortObj->close || die "failed to close";
undef $PortObj; # frees memory back to perl
 
The F<PortName> maps to both the Registry I<Device Name> and the
I<Properties> associated with that device. A single I<Physical> port
can be accessed using two or more I<Device Names>. But the options
and setup data will differ significantly in the two cases. A typical
example is a Modem on port "COM2". Both of these F<PortNames> open
the same I<Physical> hardware:
 
$P1 = new Win32::SerialPort ("COM2");
 
$P2 = new Win32::SerialPort ("\\\\.\\Nanohertz Modem model K-9");
 
$P1 is a "generic" serial port. $P2 includes all of $P1 plus a variety
of modem-specific added options and features. The "raw" API calls return
different size configuration structures in the two cases. Win32 uses the
"\\.\" prefix to identify "named" devices. Since both names use the same
I<Physical> hardware, they can not both be used at the same time. The OS
will complain. Consider this A Good Thing. Use B<alias> to convert the
name used by "built-in" messages.
 
$P2->alias("FIDO");
 
The second constructor, B<start> is intended to simplify scripts which
need a constant setup. It executes all the steps from B<new> to
B<write_settings> based on a previously saved configuration. This
constructor will return C<undef> on a bad configuration file or failure
of a validity check. The returned object is ready for access.
 
$PortObj2 = start Win32::SerialPort ($Configuration_File_Name)
|| die;
 
The third constructor, B<tie>, combines the B<start> with Perl's
support for tied FileHandles (see I<perltie>). Win32::SerialPort
implements the complete set of methods: TIEHANDLE, PRINT, PRINTF,
WRITE, READ, GETC, READLINE, CLOSE, and DESTROY. Tied FileHandle
support was new with Version 0.14.
 
$PortObj2 = tie (*FH, 'Win32::SerialPort', $Configuration_File_Name)
|| die;
 
The implementation attempts to mimic STDIN/STDOUT behaviour as closely
as possible: calls block until done, data strings that exceed internal
buffers are divided transparently into multiple calls, and B<stty_onlcr>
and B<stty_ocrnl> are applied to output data (WRITE, PRINT, PRINTF) when
B<stty_opost> is true. In Version 0.17, the output separators C<$,> and
C<$\> are also applied to PRINT if set. Since PRINTF is treated internally
as a single record PRINT, C<$\> will be applied. Output separators are not
applied to WRITE (called as C<syswrite FH, $scalar, $length, [$offset]>).
 
The B<output_record_separator> and B<output_field_separator> methods can set
I<Port-FileHandle-Specific> versions of C<$,> and C<$\> if desired.
The input_record_separator C<$/> is not explicitly supported - but an
identical function can be obtained with a suitable B<are_match> setting.
Record separators are experimental in Version 0.17. They are not saved
in the configuration_file.
 
The tied FileHandle methods may be combined with the Win32::SerialPort
methods for B<read, input>, and B<write> as well as other methods. The
typical restrictions against mixing B<print> with B<syswrite> do not
apply. Since both B<(tied) read> and B<sysread> call the same C<$ob-E<gt>READ>
method, and since a separate C<$ob-E<gt>read> method has existed for some
time in Win32::SerialPort, you should always use B<sysread> with the
tied interface. Beginning in Version 0.17, B<sysread> checks the input
against B<stty_icrnl>, B<stty_inlcr>, and B<stty_igncr>. With B<stty_igncr>
active, the B<sysread> returns the count of all characters received including
and C<\r> characters subsequently deleted.
 
Because all the tied methods block, they should ALWAYS be used with
timeout settings and are not suitable for background operations and
polled loops. The B<sysread> method may return fewer characters than
requested when a timeout occurs. The method call is still considered
successful. If a B<sysread> times out after receiving some characters,
the actual elapsed time may be as much as twice the programmed limit.
If no bytes are received, the normal timing applies.
 
=head2 Configuration and Capability Methods
 
Starting in Version 0.18, a number of I<Application Variables> are saved
in B<$Configuration_File>. These parameters are not used internally. But
methods allow setting and reading them. The intent is to facilitate the
use of separate I<configuration scripts> to create the files. Then an
application can use B<start> as the Constructor and not bother with
command line processing or managing its own small configuration file.
The default values and number of parameters is subject to change.
 
$PortObj->devicetype('none');
$PortObj->hostname('localhost'); # for socket-based implementations
$PortObj->hostaddr(0); # a "false" value
$PortObj->datatype('raw'); # 'record' is another possibility
$PortObj->cfg_param_1('none');
$PortObj->cfg_param_2('none'); # 3 spares should be enough for now
$PortObj->cfg_param_3('none');
 
The Win32 Serial Comm API provides extensive information concerning
the capabilities and options available for a specific port (and
instance). "Modem" ports have different capabilties than "RS-232"
ports - even if they share the same Hardware. Many traditional modem
actions are handled via TAPI. "Fax" ports have another set of options -
and are accessed via MAPI. Yet many of the same low-level API commands
and data structures are "common" to each type ("Modem" is implemented
as an "RS-232" superset). In addition, Win95 supports a variety of
legacy hardware (e.g fixed 134.5 baud) while WinNT has hooks for ISDN,
16-data-bit paths, and 256Kbaud.
 
=over 8
 
Binary selections will accept as I<true> any of the following:
C<("YES", "Y", "ON", "TRUE", "T", "1", 1)> (upper/lower/mixed case)
Anything else is I<false>.
 
There are a large number of possible configuration and option parameters.
To facilitate checking option validity in scripts, most configuration
methods can be used in three different ways:
 
=item method called with an argument
 
The parameter is set to the argument, if valid. An invalid argument
returns I<false> (undef) and the parameter is unchanged. The function
will also I<carp> if B<$user_msg> is I<true>. After B<write_settings>,
the port will be updated immediately if allowed. Otherwise, the value
will be applied when B<write_settings> is called.
 
=item method called with no argument in scalar context
 
The current value is returned. If the value is not initialized either
directly or by default, return "undef" which will parse to I<false>.
For binary selections (true/false), return the current value. All
current values from "multivalue" selections will parse to I<true>.
Current values may differ from requested values until B<write_settings>.
There is no way to see requests which have not yet been applied.
Setting the same parameter again overwrites the first request. Test
the return value of the setting method to check "success".
 
=item method called with no argument in list context
 
Return a list consisting of all acceptable choices for parameters with
discrete choices. Return a list C<(minimum, maximum)> for parameters
which can be set to a range of values. Binary selections have no need
to call this way - but will get C<(0,1)> if they do. Beginning in
Version 0.16, Binary selections inherited from Win32API::CommPort may
not return anything useful in list context. The null list C<(undef)>
will be returned for failed calls in list context (e.g. for an invalid
or unexpected argument).
 
=item Asynchronous (Background) I/O
 
The module handles Polling (do if Ready), Synchronous (block until
Ready), and Asynchronous Modes (begin and test if Ready) with the timeout
choices provided by the API. No effort has yet been made to interact with
Windows events. But background I/O has been used successfully with the
Perl Tk modules and callbacks from the event loop.
 
=item Timeouts
 
The API provides two timing models. The first applies only to reading and
essentially determines I<Read Not Ready> by checking the time between
consecutive characters. The B<ReadFile> operation returns if that time
exceeds the value set by B<read_interval>. It does this by timestamping
each character. It appears that at least one character must by received in
I<every> B<read> I<call to the API> to initialize the mechanism. The timer
is then reset by each succeeding character. If no characters are received,
the read will block indefinitely.
 
Setting B<read_interval> to C<0xffffffff> will do a non-blocking read.
The B<ReadFile> returns immediately whether or not any characters are
actually read. This replicates the behavior of the API.
 
The other model defines the total time allowed to complete the operation.
A fixed overhead time is added to the product of bytes and per_byte_time.
A wide variety of timeout options can be defined by selecting the three
parameters: fixed, each, and size.
 
Read_Total = B<read_const_time> + (B<read_char_time> * bytes_to_read)
 
Write_Total = B<write_const_time> + (B<write_char_time> * bytes_to_write)
 
When reading a known number of characters, the I<Read_Total> mechanism is
recommended. This mechanism I<MUST> be used with I<tied FileHandles> because
the tie methods can make multiple internal API calls in response to a single
B<sysread> or B<READLINE>. The I<Read_Interval> mechanism is suitable for
a B<read> method that expects a response of variable or unknown size. You
should then also set a long I<Read_Total> timeout as a "backup" in case
no bytes are received.
 
=back
 
=head2 Exports
 
Nothing is exported by default. Nothing is currently exported. Optional
tags from Win32API::CommPort are passed through.
 
=over 4
 
=item :PARAM
 
Utility subroutines and constants for parameter setting and test:
 
LONGsize SHORTsize nocarp yes_true
OS_Error internal_buffer
 
=item :STAT
 
Serial communications constants from Win32API::CommPort. Included are the
constants for ascertaining why a transmission is blocked:
 
BM_fCtsHold BM_fDsrHold BM_fRlsdHold BM_fXoffHold
BM_fXoffSent BM_fEof BM_fTxim BM_AllBits
 
Which incoming bits are active:
 
MS_CTS_ON MS_DSR_ON MS_RING_ON MS_RLSD_ON
 
What hardware errors have been detected:
 
CE_RXOVER CE_OVERRUN CE_RXPARITY CE_FRAME
CE_BREAK CE_TXFULL CE_MODE
 
Offsets into the array returned by B<status:>
 
ST_BLOCK ST_INPUT ST_OUTPUT ST_ERROR
 
=back
 
=head2 Stty Emulation
 
Nothing wrong with dreaming! A subset of stty options is available
through a B<stty> method. The purpose is support of existing serial
devices which have embedded knowledge of Unix communication line and
login practices. It is also needed by Tom Christiansen's Perl Power Tools
project. This is new and experimental in Version 0.15. The B<stty> method
returns an array of "traditional stty values" when called with no
arguments. With arguments, it sets the corresponding parameters.
 
$ok = $PortObj->stty("-icanon"); # equivalent to stty_icanon(0)
@stty_all = $PortObj->stty(); # get all the parameters, Perl-style
$ok = $PortObj->stty("cs7",19200); # multiple parameters
$ok = $PortObj->stty(@stty_save); # many parameters
 
The distribution includes a demo script, stty.plx, which gives details
of usage. Not all Unix parameters are currently supported. But the array
will contain all those which can be set. The order in C<@stty_all> will
match the following pattern:
 
baud, # numeric, always first
"intr", character, # the parameters which set special characters
"name", character, ...
"stop", character, # "stop" will always be the last "pair"
"parameter", # the on/off settings
"-parameter", ...
 
Version 0.13 added the primitive functions required to implement this
feature. A number of methods named B<stty_xxx> do what an
I<experienced stty user> would expect.
Unlike B<stty> on Unix, the B<stty_xxx> operations apply only to I/O
processed via the B<lookfor> method or the I<tied FileHandle> methods.
The B<read, input, read_done, write> methods all treat data as "raw".
 
 
The following stty functions have related SerialPort functions:
---------------------------------------------------------------
stty (control) SerialPort Default Value
---------------- ------------------ -------------
parenb inpck parity_enable from port
parodd parity from port
cs5 cs6 cs7 cs8 databits from port
cstopb stopbits from port
clocal crtscts handshake from port
ixon ixoff handshake from port
 
time read_const_time from port
110 300 600 1200 2400 baudrate from port
4800 9600 19200 38400 baudrate
75 134.5 150 1800 fixed baud only - not selectable
g, "stty < /dev/x" start, save none
sane restart none
 
stty (input) SerialPort Default Value
---------------- ------------------ -------------
istrip stty_istrip off
igncr stty_igncr off
inlcr stty_inlcr off
icrnl stty_icrnl on
parmrk error_char from port (off typ)
 
stty (output) SerialPort Default Value
---------------- ------------------ -------------
ocrnl stty_ocrnl off if opost
onlcr stty_onlcr on if opost
opost stty_opost off
 
stty (local) SerialPort Default Value
---------------- ------------------ -------------
raw read, write, input none
cooked lookfor none
echo stty_echo off
echoe stty_echoe on if echo
echok stty_echok on if echo
echonl stty_echonl off
echoke stty_echoke on if echo
echoctl stty_echoctl off
 
isig stty_isig off
 
icanon stty_icanon off
stty (char) SerialPort Default Value
---------------- ------------------ -------------
intr stty_intr "\cC"
is_stty_intr 3
 
quit stty_quit "\cD"
is_stty_quit 4
 
erase stty_erase "\cH"
is_stty_erase 8
 
(erase echo) stty_bsdel "\cH \cH"
 
kill stty_kill "\cU"
is_stty_kill 21
 
(kill echo) stty_clear "\r {76}\r"
is_stty_clear "-@{76}-"
 
eof stty_eof "\cZ"
is_stty_eof 26
 
eol stty_eol "\cJ"
is_stty_eol 10
 
start xon_char from port ("\cQ" typ)
is_xon_char 17
stop xoff_char from port ("\cS" typ)
is_xoff_char 19
The following stty functions have no equivalent in SerialPort:
--------------------------------------------------------------
[-]hup [-]ignbrk [-]brkint [-]ignpar
[-]tostop susp 0 50
134 200 exta extb
[-]cread [-]hupcl
 
The stty function list is taken from the documentation for IO::Stty by
Austin Schutz.
 
=head2 Lookfor and I/O Processing
 
Many of the B<stty_xxx> methods support features which are necessary for
line-oriented input (such as command-line handling). These include methods
which select control-keys to delete characters (B<stty_erase>) and lines
(B<stty_kill>), define input boundaries (B<stty_eol, stty_eof>), and abort
processing (B<stty_intr, stty_quit>). These keys also have B<is_stty_xxx>
methods which convert the key-codes to numeric equivalents which can be
saved in the configuration file.
 
Some communications programs have a different but related need - to collect
(or discard) input until a specific pattern is detected. For lines, the
pattern is a line-termination. But there are also requirements to search
for other strings in the input such as "username:" and "password:". The
B<lookfor> method provides a consistant mechanism for solving this problem.
It searches input character-by-character looking for a match to any of the
elements of an array set using the B<are_match> method. It returns the
entire input up to the match pattern if a match is found. If no match
is found, it returns "" unless an input error or abort is detected (which
returns undef).
 
The actual match and the characters after it (if any) may also be viewed
using the B<lastlook> method. In Version 0.13, the match test included
a C<s/$pattern//s> test which worked fine for literal text but returned
the I<Regular Expression> that matched when C<$pattern> contained any Perl
metacharacters. That was probably a bug - although no one reported it.
 
In Version 0.14, B<lastlook> returns both the input and the pattern from
the match test. It also adopts the convention from Expect.pm that match
strings are literal text (tested using B<index>) unless preceeded in the
B<are_match> list by a B<"-re",> entry. The default B<are_match> list
is C<("\n")>, which matches complete lines.
 
my ($match, $after, $pattern, $instead) = $PortObj->lastlook;
# input that MATCHED, input AFTER the match, PATTERN that matched
# input received INSTEAD when timeout without match ("" if match)
 
$PortObj->are_match("text1", "-re", "pattern", "text2");
# possible match strings: "pattern" is a regular expression,
# "text1" and "text2" are literal strings
 
The I<Regular Expression> handling in B<lookfor> is still
experimental. Please let me know if you use it (or can't use it), so
I can confirm bug fixes don't break your code. For literal strings,
C<$match> and C<$pattern> should be identical. The C<$instead> value
returns the internal buffer tested by the match logic. A successful
match or a B<lookclear> resets it to "" - so it is only useful for error
handling such as timeout processing or reporting unexpected responses.
 
The B<lookfor> method is designed to be sampled periodically (polled). Any
characters after the match pattern are saved for a subsequent B<lookfor>.
Internally, B<lookfor> is implemented using the nonblocking B<input> method
when called with no parameter. If called with a count, B<lookfor> calls
C<$PortObj-E<gt>read(count)> which blocks until the B<read> is I<Complete> or
a I<Timeout> occurs. The blocking alternative should not be used unless a
fault time has been defined using B<read_interval, read_const_time, and
read_char_time>. It exists mostly to support the I<tied FileHandle>
functions B<sysread, getc,> and B<E<lt>FHE<gt>>.
 
The internal buffers used by B<lookfor> may be purged by the B<lookclear>
method (which also clears the last match). For testing, B<lookclear> can
accept a string which is "looped back" to the next B<input>. This feature
is enabled only when C<set_test_mode_active(1)>. Normally, B<lookclear>
will return C<undef> if given parameters. It still purges the buffers and
last_match in that case (but nothing is "looped back"). You will want
B<stty_echo(0)> when exercising loopback.
 
Version 0.15 adds a B<matchclear> method. It is designed to handle the
"special case" where the match string is the first character(s) received
by B<lookfor>. In this case, C<$lookfor_return == "">, B<lookfor> does
not provide a clear indication that a match was found. The B<matchclear>
returns the same C<$match> that would be returned by B<lastlook> and
resets it to "" without resetting any of the other buffers. Since the
B<lookfor> already searched I<through> the match, B<matchclear> is used
to both detect and step-over "blank" lines.
 
The character-by-character processing used by B<lookfor> to support the
I<stty emulation> is fine for interactive activities and tasks which
expect short responses. But it has too much "overhead" to handle fast
data streams. Version 0.15 adds a B<streamline> method which is a fast,
line-oriented alternative with no echo support or input handling except
for pattern searching. Exact benchmarks will vary with input data and
patterns, but my tests indicate B<streamline> is 10-20 times faster then
B<lookfor> when uploading files averaging 25-50 characters per line.
Since B<streamline> uses the same internal buffers, the B<lookclear,
lastlook, are_match, and matchclear> methods act the same in both cases.
In fact, calls to B<streamline> and B<lookfor> can be interleaved if desired
(e.g. an interactive task that starts an upload and returns to interactive
activity when it is complete).
 
Beginning in Version 0.15, the B<READLINE> method supports "list context".
A tied FileHandle can slurp in a whole file with an "@lines = E<lt>FHE<gt>"
construct. In "scalar context", B<READLINE> calls B<lookfor>. But it calls
B<streamline> in "list context". Both contexts also call B<matchclear>
to detect "empty" lines and B<reset_error> to detect hardware problems.
The existance of a hardware fault is reported with C<$^E>, although the
specific fault is only reported when B<error_msg> is true.
 
There are two additional methods for supporting "list context" input:
B<lastline> sets an "end_of_file" I<Regular Expression>, and B<linesize>
permits changing the "packet size" in the blocking read operation to allow
tuning performance to data characteristics. These two only apply during
B<READLINE>. The default for B<linesize> is 1. There is no default for
the B<lastline> method.
 
In Version 0.15, I<Regular Expressions> set by B<are_match> and B<lastline>
will be pre-compiled using the I<qr//> construct on Perl 5.005 and higher.
This doubled B<lookfor> and B<streamline> speed in my tests with
I<Regular Expressions> - but actual improvements depend on both patterns
and input data.
 
The functionality of B<lookfor> includes a limited subset of the capabilities
found in Austin Schutz's I<Expect.pm> for Unix (and Tcl's expect which it
resembles). The C<$before, $match, $pattern, and $after> return values are
available if someone needs to create an "expect" subroutine for porting a
script. When using multiple patterns, there is one important functional
difference: I<Expect.pm> looks at each pattern in turn and returns the first
match found; B<lookfor> and B<streamline> test all patterns and return the
one found I<earliest> in the input if more than one matches.
 
Because B<lookfor> can be used to manage a command-line environment much
like a Unix serial login, a number of "stty-like" methods are included to
handle the issues raised by serial logins. One issue is dissimilar line
terminations. This is addressed by the following methods:
 
$PortObj->stty_icrnl; # map \r to \n on input
$PortObj->stty_igncr; # ignore \r on input
$PortObj->stty_inlcr; # map \n to \r on input
$PortObj->stty_ocrnl; # map \r to \n on output
$PortObj->stty_onlcr; # map \n to \r\n on output
$PortObj->stty_opost; # enable output mapping
 
The default specifies a raw device with no input or output processing.
In Version 0.14, the default was a device which sends "\r" at the end
of a line, requires "\r\n" to terminate incoming lines, and expects the
"host" to echo every keystroke. Many "dumb terminals" act this way and
the defaults were similar to Unix defaults. But some users found this
ackward and confusing.
 
Sometimes, you want perl to echo input characters back to the serial
device (and other times you don't want that).
 
$PortObj->stty_echo; # echo every character
$PortObj->stty_echoe; # if echo erase with bsdel string (default)
$PortObj->stty_echok; # if echo \n after kill character (default)
$PortObj->stty_echonl; # echo \n even if stty_echo(0)
$PortObj->stty_echoke; # if echo clear string after kill (default)
$PortObj->stty_echoctl; # if echo "^Char" for control chars
 
$PortObj->stty_istrip; # strip input to 7-bits
 
my $air = " "x76; # overwrite entire line with spaces
$PortObj->stty_clear("\r$air\r"); # written after kill character
$PortObj->is_prompt("PROMPT:"); # need to write after kill
$PortObj->stty_bsdel("\cH \cH"); # written after erase character
 
# internal method that permits clear string with \r in config file
my $plus32 = "@"x76; # overwrite line with spaces (ord += 32)
$PortObj->is_stty_clear("-$plus32-"); # equivalent to stty_clear
 
 
=head1 NOTES
 
The object returned by B<new> or B<start> is NOT a I<FileHandle>. You
will be disappointed if you try to use it as one. If you need a
I<FileHandle>, you must use B<tie> as the constructor.
 
e.g. the following is WRONG!!____C<print $PortObj "some text";>
 
You need something like this (Perl 5.005):
 
# construct
$tie_ob = tie(*FOO,'Win32::SerialPort', $cfgfile)
or die "Can't start $cfgfile\n";
 
print FOO "enter char: "; # destination is FileHandle, not Object
my $in = getc FOO;
syswrite FOO, "$in\n", 2, 0;
print FOO "enter line: ";
$in = <FOO>;
printf FOO "received: %s\n", $in;
print FOO "enter 5 char: ";
sysread (FOO, $in, 5, 0) or die;
printf FOO "received: %s\n", $in;
 
# destruct
close FOO || print "close failed\n";
undef $tie_ob; # Don't forget this one!!
untie *FOO;
 
Always include the C<undef $tie_ob> before the B<untie>. See the I<Gotcha>
description in I<perltie>.
 
The Perl 5.004 implementation of I<tied FileHandles> is missing
B<close> and B<syswrite>. The Perl 5.003 version is essentially unusable.
If you need these functions, consider Perl 5.005 seriously.
 
An important note about Win32 filenames. The reserved device names such
as C< COM1, AUX, LPT1, CON, PRN > can NOT be used as filenames. Hence
I<"COM2.cfg"> would not be usable for B<$Configuration_File_Name>.
 
Thanks to Ken White for testing on NT.
 
There is a linux clone of this module implemented using I<POSIX.pm>.
It also runs on AIX and Solaris, and will probably run on other POSIX
systems as well. It does not currently support the complete set of methods -
although portability of user programs is excellent for the calls it does
support. It is available from CPAN as I<Device::SerialPort>.
 
=head1 KNOWN LIMITATIONS
 
Since everything is (sometimes convoluted but still pure) Perl, you can
fix flaws and change limits if required. But please file a bug report if
you do. This module has been tested with each of the binary perl versions
for which Win32::API is supported: AS builds 315, 316, 500-509 and GS
5.004_02. It has only been tested on Intel hardware.
 
Although the B<lookfor, stty_xxx, and Tied FileHandle> mechanisms are
considered stable, they have only been tested on a small subset of possible
applications. While "\r" characters may be included in the clear string
using B<is_stty_clear> internally, "\n" characters may NOT be included
in multi-character strings if you plan to save the strings in a configuration
file (which uses "\n" as an internal terminator).
 
=over 4
 
=item Tutorial
 
With all the options, this module needs a good tutorial. It doesn't
have a complete one yet. A I<"How to get started"> tutorial appeared
B<The Perl Journal #13> (March 1999). Examples from the article are
available from http://tpj.com and from http://members.aol.com/Bbirthisel.
The demo programs in the distribution are a good starting point for
additional examples.
 
=item Buffers
 
The size of the Win32 buffers are selectable with B<buffers>. But each read
method currently uses a fixed internal buffer of 4096 bytes. This can be
changed in the Win32API::CommPort source and read with B<internal_buffer>.
The XS version will support dynamic buffer sizing. Large operations are
automatically converted to multiple smaller ones by the B<tied FileHandle>
methods.
 
=item Modems
 
Lots of modem-specific options are not supported. The same is true of
TAPI, MAPI. I<API Wizards> are welcome to contribute.
 
=item API Options
 
Lots of options are just "passed through from the API". Some probably
shouldn't be used together. The module validates the obvious choices when
possible. For something really fancy, you may need additional API
documentation. Available from I<Micro$oft Pre$$>.
 
=back
 
=head1 BUGS
 
On Win32, a port must B<close> before it can be reopened again by the same
process. If a physical port can be accessed using more than one name (see
above), all names are treated as one. The perl script can also be run
multiple times within a single batch file or shell script. The I<Makefile.PL>
spawns subshells with backticks to run the test suite on Perl 5.003 - ugly,
but it works.
 
On NT, a B<read_done> or B<write_done> returns I<False> if a background
operation is aborted by a purge. Win95 returns I<True>.
 
EXTENDED_OS_ERROR ($^E) is not supported by the binary ports before 5.005.
It "sort-of-tracks" B<$!> in 5.003 and 5.004, but YMMV.
 
A few NT systems seem to set B<can_parity_enable> true, but do not actually
support setting B<parity_enable>. This may be a characteristic of certain
third-party serial drivers.
 
__Please send comments and bug reports to wcbirthisel@alum.mit.edu.
 
=head1 AUTHORS
 
Bill Birthisel, wcbirthisel@alum.mit.edu, http://members.aol.com/Bbirthisel/.
 
Tye McQueen, tye@metronet.com, http://www.metronet.com/~tye/.
 
=head1 SEE ALSO
 
Win32API::CommPort - the low-level API calls which support this module
 
Win32API::File I<when available>
 
Win32::API - Aldo Calpini's "Magic", http://www.divinf.it/dada/perl/
 
Perltoot.xxx - Tom (Christiansen)'s Object-Oriented Tutorial
 
Expect.pm - Austin Schutz's adaptation of TCL's "expect" for Unix Perls
 
=head1 COPYRIGHT
 
Copyright (C) 1999, Bill Birthisel. All rights reserved.
 
This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the same terms as Perl itself.
 
=head2 COMPATIBILITY
 
Most of the code in this module has been stable since version 0.12.
Except for items indicated as I<Experimental>, I do not expect functional
changes which are not fully backwards compatible. However, Version 0.16
removes the "dummy (0, 1) list" which was returned by many binary methods
in case they were called in list context. I do not know of any use outside
the test suite for that feature.
 
Version 0.12 added an I<Install.PL> script to put modules into the documented
Namespaces. The script uses I<MakeMaker> tools not available in
ActiveState 3xx builds. Users of those builds will need to install
differently (see README). Programs in the test suite are modified for
the current version. Additions to the configurtion files generated by
B<save> prevent those created by Version 0.18 from being used by earlier
Versions. 4 November 1999.
 
=cut
/MissionCockpit/tags/V0.2.0/perl/site/lib/Win32API/CommPort.pm
0,0 → 1,3146
# This part includes the low-level API calls
package Win32API::CommPort;
 
use Win32;
use Win32::API 0.01;
if ( $] < 5.004 ) {
my $no_silly_warning = $Win32::API::VERSION;
$no_silly_warning = $Win32::API::pack;
}
 
use Carp;
use strict;
 
#### API declarations ####
no strict 'subs'; # these may be imported someday
 
use vars qw(
$_CloseHandle $_CreateFile $_GetCommState
$_ReadFile $_SetCommState $_SetupComm
$_PurgeComm $_CreateEvent $_GetCommTimeouts
$_SetCommTimeouts $_GetCommProperties $_ClearCommBreak
$_ClearCommError $_EscapeCommFunction $_GetCommConfig
$_GetCommMask $_GetCommModemStatus $_SetCommBreak
$_SetCommConfig $_SetCommMask $_TransmitCommChar
$_WaitCommEvent $_WriteFile $_ResetEvent
$_GetOverlappedResult
);
 
$_CreateFile = new Win32::API("kernel32", "CreateFile",
[P, N, N, N, N, N, N], N);
$_CloseHandle = new Win32::API("kernel32", "CloseHandle", [N], N);
$_GetCommState = new Win32::API("kernel32", "GetCommState", [N, P], I);
$_SetCommState = new Win32::API("kernel32", "SetCommState", [N, P], I);
$_SetupComm = new Win32::API("kernel32", "SetupComm", [N, N, N], I);
$_PurgeComm = new Win32::API("kernel32", "PurgeComm", [N, N], I);
$_CreateEvent = new Win32::API("kernel32", "CreateEvent", [P, I, I, P], N);
$_GetCommTimeouts = new Win32::API("kernel32", "GetCommTimeouts",
[N, P], I);
$_SetCommTimeouts = new Win32::API("kernel32", "SetCommTimeouts",
[N, P], I);
$_GetCommProperties = new Win32::API("kernel32", "GetCommProperties",
[N, P], I);
$_ReadFile = new Win32::API("kernel32", "ReadFile", [N, P, N, P, P], I);
$_WriteFile = new Win32::API("kernel32", "WriteFile", [N, P, N, P, P], I);
$_TransmitCommChar = new Win32::API("kernel32", "TransmitCommChar", [N, I], I);
$_ClearCommBreak = new Win32::API("kernel32", "ClearCommBreak", [N], I);
$_SetCommBreak = new Win32::API("kernel32", "SetCommBreak", [N], I);
$_ClearCommError = new Win32::API("kernel32", "ClearCommError", [N, P, P], I);
$_EscapeCommFunction = new Win32::API("kernel32", "EscapeCommFunction",
[N, N], I);
$_GetCommModemStatus = new Win32::API("kernel32", "GetCommModemStatus",
[N, P], I);
$_GetOverlappedResult = new Win32::API("kernel32", "GetOverlappedResult",
[N, P, P, I], I);
 
#### these are not used yet
 
$_GetCommConfig = new Win32::API("kernel32", "GetCommConfig", [N, P, P], I);
$_GetCommMask = new Win32::API("kernel32", "GetCommMask", [N, P], I);
$_SetCommConfig = new Win32::API("kernel32", "SetCommConfig", [N, P, N], I);
$_SetCommMask = new Win32::API("kernel32", "SetCommMask", [N, N], I);
$_WaitCommEvent = new Win32::API("kernel32", "WaitCommEvent", [N, P, P], I);
$_ResetEvent = new Win32::API("kernel32", "ResetEvent", [N], I);
 
use strict;
 
use vars qw($VERSION @ISA @EXPORT @EXPORT_OK %EXPORT_TAGS $RBUF_Size);
$VERSION = '0.19';
$RBUF_Size = 4096;
 
require Exporter;
## require AutoLoader;
 
@ISA = qw(Exporter);
# Items to export into callers namespace by default. Note: do not export
# names by default without a very good reason. Use EXPORT_OK instead.
# Do not simply export all your public functions/methods/constants.
 
@EXPORT= qw();
@EXPORT_OK= qw();
%EXPORT_TAGS = (STAT => [qw( BM_fCtsHold BM_fDsrHold
BM_fRlsdHold BM_fXoffHold
BM_fXoffSent BM_fEof
BM_fTxim BM_AllBits
MS_CTS_ON MS_DSR_ON
MS_RING_ON MS_RLSD_ON
CE_RXOVER CE_OVERRUN
CE_RXPARITY CE_FRAME
CE_BREAK CE_TXFULL
CE_MODE ST_BLOCK
ST_INPUT ST_OUTPUT
ST_ERROR )],
 
RAW => [qw( CloseHandle CreateFile
GetCommState ReadFile
SetCommState SetupComm
PurgeComm CreateEvent
GetCommTimeouts SetCommTimeouts
GetCommProperties ClearCommBreak
ClearCommError EscapeCommFunction
GetCommConfig GetCommMask
GetCommModemStatus SetCommBreak
SetCommConfig SetCommMask
TransmitCommChar WaitCommEvent
WriteFile ResetEvent
GetOverlappedResult
PURGE_TXABORT PURGE_RXABORT
PURGE_TXCLEAR PURGE_RXCLEAR
SETXOFF SETXON
SETRTS CLRRTS
SETDTR CLRDTR
SETBREAK CLRBREAK
EV_RXCHAR EV_RXFLAG
EV_TXEMPTY EV_CTS
EV_DSR EV_RLSD
EV_BREAK EV_ERR
EV_RING EV_PERR
EV_RX80FULL EV_EVENT1
EV_EVENT2 ERROR_IO_INCOMPLETE
ERROR_IO_PENDING )],
 
COMMPROP => [qw( BAUD_USER BAUD_075 BAUD_110
BAUD_134_5 BAUD_150 BAUD_300
BAUD_600 BAUD_1200 BAUD_1800
BAUD_2400 BAUD_4800 BAUD_7200
BAUD_9600 BAUD_14400 BAUD_19200
BAUD_38400 BAUD_56K BAUD_57600
BAUD_115200 BAUD_128K
 
PST_FAX PST_LAT PST_MODEM
PST_RS232 PST_RS422 PST_RS423
PST_RS449 PST_SCANNER PST_X25
PST_NETWORK_BRIDGE PST_PARALLELPORT
PST_TCPIP_TELNET PST_UNSPECIFIED
 
PCF_INTTIMEOUTS PCF_PARITY_CHECK
PCF_16BITMODE PCF_DTRDSR
PCF_SPECIALCHARS PCF_RLSD
PCF_RTSCTS PCF_SETXCHAR
PCF_TOTALTIMEOUTS PCF_XONXOFF
 
SP_BAUD SP_DATABITS SP_HANDSHAKING
SP_PARITY SP_PARITY_CHECK SP_RLSD
SP_STOPBITS SP_SERIALCOMM
 
DATABITS_5 DATABITS_6 DATABITS_7
DATABITS_8 DATABITS_16 DATABITS_16X
 
STOPBITS_10 STOPBITS_15 STOPBITS_20
PARITY_SPACE PARITY_NONE PARITY_ODD
PARITY_EVEN PARITY_MARK
COMMPROP_INITIALIZED )],
 
DCB => [qw( CBR_110 CBR_300 CBR_600
CBR_1200 CBR_2400 CBR_4800
CBR_9600 CBR_14400 CBR_19200
CBR_38400 CBR_56000 CBR_57600
CBR_115200 CBR_128000 CBR_256000
 
DTR_CONTROL_DISABLE DTR_CONTROL_ENABLE
DTR_CONTROL_HANDSHAKE RTS_CONTROL_DISABLE
RTS_CONTROL_ENABLE RTS_CONTROL_HANDSHAKE
RTS_CONTROL_TOGGLE
 
EVENPARITY MARKPARITY NOPARITY
ODDPARITY SPACEPARITY
 
ONESTOPBIT ONE5STOPBITS TWOSTOPBITS
 
FM_fBinary FM_fParity
FM_fOutxCtsFlow FM_fOutxDsrFlow
FM_fDtrControl FM_fDsrSensitivity
FM_fTXContinueOnXoff FM_fOutX
FM_fInX FM_fErrorChar
FM_fNull FM_fRtsControl
FM_fAbortOnError FM_fDummy2 )],
 
PARAM => [qw( LONGsize SHORTsize OS_Error
nocarp internal_buffer yes_true )]);
 
 
Exporter::export_ok_tags('STAT', 'RAW', 'COMMPROP', 'DCB', 'PARAM');
 
$EXPORT_TAGS{ALL} = \@EXPORT_OK;
 
#### subroutine wrappers for API calls
 
sub CloseHandle {
return unless ( 1 == @_ );
return $_CloseHandle->Call( shift );
}
 
sub CreateFile {
return $_CreateFile->Call( @_ );
# returns handle
}
 
sub GetCommState {
return $_GetCommState->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub SetCommState {
return $_SetCommState->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub SetupComm {
return $_SetupComm->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub PurgeComm {
return $_PurgeComm->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub CreateEvent {
return $_CreateEvent->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub GetCommTimeouts {
return $_GetCommTimeouts->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub SetCommTimeouts {
return $_SetCommTimeouts->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub GetCommProperties {
return $_GetCommProperties->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub ReadFile {
return $_ReadFile->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub WriteFile {
return $_WriteFile->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub TransmitCommChar {
return $_TransmitCommChar->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub ClearCommBreak {
return unless ( 1 == @_ );
return $_ClearCommBreak->Call( shift );
}
 
sub SetCommBreak {
return unless ( 1 == @_ );
return $_SetCommBreak->Call( shift );
}
 
sub ClearCommError {
return $_ClearCommError->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub EscapeCommFunction {
return $_EscapeCommFunction->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub GetCommModemStatus {
return $_GetCommModemStatus->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub GetOverlappedResult {
return $_GetOverlappedResult->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub GetCommConfig {
return $_GetCommConfig->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub GetCommMask {
return $_GetCommMask->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub SetCommConfig {
return $_SetCommConfig->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub SetCommMask {
return $_SetCommMask->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub WaitCommEvent {
return $_WaitCommEvent->Call( @_ );
}
 
sub ResetEvent {
return unless ( 1 == @_ );
return $_ResetEvent->Call( shift );
}
 
#### "constant" declarations from Win32 header files ####
#### compatible with ActiveState ####
 
## COMMPROP structure
sub SP_SERIALCOMM { 0x1 }
sub BAUD_075 { 0x1 }
sub BAUD_110 { 0x2 }
sub BAUD_134_5 { 0x4 }
sub BAUD_150 { 0x8 }
sub BAUD_300 { 0x10 }
sub BAUD_600 { 0x20 }
sub BAUD_1200 { 0x40 }
sub BAUD_1800 { 0x80 }
sub BAUD_2400 { 0x100 }
sub BAUD_4800 { 0x200 }
sub BAUD_7200 { 0x400 }
sub BAUD_9600 { 0x800 }
sub BAUD_14400 { 0x1000 }
sub BAUD_19200 { 0x2000 }
sub BAUD_38400 { 0x4000 }
sub BAUD_56K { 0x8000 }
sub BAUD_57600 { 0x40000 }
sub BAUD_115200 { 0x20000 }
sub BAUD_128K { 0x10000 }
sub BAUD_USER { 0x10000000 }
sub PST_FAX { 0x21 }
sub PST_LAT { 0x101 }
sub PST_MODEM { 0x6 }
sub PST_NETWORK_BRIDGE { 0x100 }
sub PST_PARALLELPORT { 0x2 }
sub PST_RS232 { 0x1 }
sub PST_RS422 { 0x3 }
sub PST_RS423 { 0x4 }
sub PST_RS449 { 0x5 }
sub PST_SCANNER { 0x22 }
sub PST_TCPIP_TELNET { 0x102 }
sub PST_UNSPECIFIED { 0 }
sub PST_X25 { 0x103 }
sub PCF_16BITMODE { 0x200 }
sub PCF_DTRDSR { 0x1 }
sub PCF_INTTIMEOUTS { 0x80 }
sub PCF_PARITY_CHECK { 0x8 }
sub PCF_RLSD { 0x4 }
sub PCF_RTSCTS { 0x2 }
sub PCF_SETXCHAR { 0x20 }
sub PCF_SPECIALCHARS { 0x100 }
sub PCF_TOTALTIMEOUTS { 0x40 }
sub PCF_XONXOFF { 0x10 }
sub SP_BAUD { 0x2 }
sub SP_DATABITS { 0x4 }
sub SP_HANDSHAKING { 0x10 }
sub SP_PARITY { 0x1 }
sub SP_PARITY_CHECK { 0x20 }
sub SP_RLSD { 0x40 }
sub SP_STOPBITS { 0x8 }
sub DATABITS_5 { 1 }
sub DATABITS_6 { 2 }
sub DATABITS_7 { 4 }
sub DATABITS_8 { 8 }
sub DATABITS_16 { 16 }
sub DATABITS_16X { 32 }
sub STOPBITS_10 { 1 }
sub STOPBITS_15 { 2 }
sub STOPBITS_20 { 4 }
sub PARITY_NONE { 256 }
sub PARITY_ODD { 512 }
sub PARITY_EVEN { 1024 }
sub PARITY_MARK { 2048 }
sub PARITY_SPACE { 4096 }
sub COMMPROP_INITIALIZED { 0xe73cf52e }
 
## DCB structure
sub CBR_110 { 110 }
sub CBR_300 { 300 }
sub CBR_600 { 600 }
sub CBR_1200 { 1200 }
sub CBR_2400 { 2400 }
sub CBR_4800 { 4800 }
sub CBR_9600 { 9600 }
sub CBR_14400 { 14400 }
sub CBR_19200 { 19200 }
sub CBR_38400 { 38400 }
sub CBR_56000 { 56000 }
sub CBR_57600 { 57600 }
sub CBR_115200 { 115200 }
sub CBR_128000 { 128000 }
sub CBR_256000 { 256000 }
sub DTR_CONTROL_DISABLE { 0 }
sub DTR_CONTROL_ENABLE { 1 }
sub DTR_CONTROL_HANDSHAKE { 2 }
sub RTS_CONTROL_DISABLE { 0 }
sub RTS_CONTROL_ENABLE { 1 }
sub RTS_CONTROL_HANDSHAKE { 2 }
sub RTS_CONTROL_TOGGLE { 3 }
sub EVENPARITY { 2 }
sub MARKPARITY { 3 }
sub NOPARITY { 0 }
sub ODDPARITY { 1 }
sub SPACEPARITY { 4 }
sub ONESTOPBIT { 0 }
sub ONE5STOPBITS { 1 }
sub TWOSTOPBITS { 2 }
 
## Flowcontrol bit mask in DCB
sub FM_fBinary { 0x1 }
sub FM_fParity { 0x2 }
sub FM_fOutxCtsFlow { 0x4 }
sub FM_fOutxDsrFlow { 0x8 }
sub FM_fDtrControl { 0x30 }
sub FM_fDsrSensitivity { 0x40 }
sub FM_fTXContinueOnXoff { 0x80 }
sub FM_fOutX { 0x100 }
sub FM_fInX { 0x200 }
sub FM_fErrorChar { 0x400 }
sub FM_fNull { 0x800 }
sub FM_fRtsControl { 0x3000 }
sub FM_fAbortOnError { 0x4000 }
sub FM_fDummy2 { 0xffff8000 }
 
## COMSTAT bit mask
sub BM_fCtsHold { 0x1 }
sub BM_fDsrHold { 0x2 }
sub BM_fRlsdHold { 0x4 }
sub BM_fXoffHold { 0x8 }
sub BM_fXoffSent { 0x10 }
sub BM_fEof { 0x20 }
sub BM_fTxim { 0x40 }
sub BM_AllBits { 0x7f }
 
## PurgeComm bit mask
sub PURGE_TXABORT { 0x1 }
sub PURGE_RXABORT { 0x2 }
sub PURGE_TXCLEAR { 0x4 }
sub PURGE_RXCLEAR { 0x8 }
 
## GetCommModemStatus bit mask
sub MS_CTS_ON { 0x10 }
sub MS_DSR_ON { 0x20 }
sub MS_RING_ON { 0x40 }
sub MS_RLSD_ON { 0x80 }
 
## EscapeCommFunction operations
sub SETXOFF { 0x1 }
sub SETXON { 0x2 }
sub SETRTS { 0x3 }
sub CLRRTS { 0x4 }
sub SETDTR { 0x5 }
sub CLRDTR { 0x6 }
sub SETBREAK { 0x8 }
sub CLRBREAK { 0x9 }
 
## ClearCommError bit mask
sub CE_RXOVER { 0x1 }
sub CE_OVERRUN { 0x2 }
sub CE_RXPARITY { 0x4 }
sub CE_FRAME { 0x8 }
sub CE_BREAK { 0x10 }
sub CE_TXFULL { 0x100 }
#### LPT only
# sub CE_PTO { 0x200 }
# sub CE_IOE { 0x400 }
# sub CE_DNS { 0x800 }
# sub CE_OOP { 0x1000 }
#### LPT only
sub CE_MODE { 0x8000 }
 
## GetCommMask bits
sub EV_RXCHAR { 0x1 }
sub EV_RXFLAG { 0x2 }
sub EV_TXEMPTY { 0x4 }
sub EV_CTS { 0x8 }
sub EV_DSR { 0x10 }
sub EV_RLSD { 0x20 }
sub EV_BREAK { 0x40 }
sub EV_ERR { 0x80 }
sub EV_RING { 0x100 }
sub EV_PERR { 0x200 }
sub EV_RX80FULL { 0x400 }
sub EV_EVENT1 { 0x800 }
sub EV_EVENT2 { 0x1000 }
 
## Allowed OVERLAP errors
sub ERROR_IO_INCOMPLETE { 996 }
sub ERROR_IO_PENDING { 997 }
 
#### "constant" declarations compatible with ActiveState ####
 
my $DCBformat="LLLSSSCCCCCCCCS";
my $CP_format1="SSLLLLLLLLLSSLLLLSA*"; # rs232
my $CP_format6="SSLLLLLLLLLSSLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLA*"; # modem
my $CP_format0="SA50LA244"; # pre-read
 
my $OVERLAPPEDformat="LLLLL";
my $TIMEOUTformat="LLLLL";
my $COMSTATformat="LLL";
my $cfg_file_sig="Win32API::SerialPort_Configuration_File -- DO NOT EDIT --\n";
 
sub SHORTsize { 0xffff; }
sub LONGsize { 0xffffffff; }
 
sub ST_BLOCK {0} # status offsets for caller
sub ST_INPUT {1}
sub ST_OUTPUT {2}
sub ST_ERROR {3} # latched
 
 
#### Package variable declarations ####
 
my @Yes_resp = (
"YES","Y",
"ON",
"TRUE","T",
"1"
);
 
my @binary_opt = (0, 1);
my @byte_opt = (0, 255);
 
my $Babble = 0;
my $testactive = 0; # test mode active
 
## my $null=[];
my $null=0;
my $zero=0;
 
# Preloaded methods go here.
 
sub OS_Error { print Win32::FormatMessage ( Win32::GetLastError() ); }
 
sub get_tick_count { return Win32::GetTickCount(); }
 
# test*.t only - suppresses default messages
sub set_no_messages {
return unless (@_ == 2);
$testactive = yes_true($_[1]);
}
 
sub nocarp { return $testactive }
 
sub internal_buffer { return $RBUF_Size }
 
sub yes_true {
my $choice = uc shift;
my $ans = 0;
foreach (@Yes_resp) { $ans = 1 if ( $choice eq $_ ) }
return $ans;
}
 
sub new {
my $proto = shift;
my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
my $self = {};
my $ok = 0; # API return value
my $hr = 0; # temporary hashref
my $fmask = 0; # temporary for bit banging
my $fix_baud = 0;
my $key;
my $value;
my $CommPropBlank = " ";
 
# COMMPROP only used during new
my $CommProperties = " "x300; # extra buffer for modems
my $CP_Length = 0;
my $CP_Version = 0;
my $CP_ServiceMask = 0;
my $CP_Reserved1 = 0;
my $CP_MaxBaud = 0;
my $CP_ProvCapabilities = 0;
my $CP_SettableParams = 0;
my $CP_SettableBaud = 0;
my $CP_SettableData = 0;
my $CP_SettableStopParity = 0;
my $CP_ProvSpec1 = 0;
my $CP_ProvSpec2 = 0;
my $CP_ProvChar_start = 0;
my $CP_Filler = 0;
 
# MODEMDEVCAPS
my $MC_ReqSize = 0;
my $MC_SpecOffset = 0;
my $MC_SpecSize = 0;
my $MC_ProvVersion = 0;
my $MC_ManfOffset = 0;
my $MC_ManfSize = 0;
my $MC_ModOffset = 0;
my $MC_ModSize = 0;
my $MC_VerOffset = 0;
my $MC_VerSize = 0;
my $MC_DialOpt = 0;
my $MC_CallFailTime = 0;
my $MC_IdleTime = 0;
my $MC_SpkrVol = 0;
my $MC_SpkrMode = 0;
my $MC_ModOpt = 0;
my $MC_MaxDTE = 0;
my $MC_MaxDCE = 0;
my $MC_Filler = 0;
 
$self->{NAME} = shift;
my $quiet = shift;
 
$self->{"_HANDLE"}=CreateFile("$self->{NAME}",
0xc0000000,
0,
$null,
3,
0x40000000,
$null);
# device name
# GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE
# no FILE_SHARE_xx
# no SECURITY_xx
# OPEN_EXISTING
# FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED
# template file
 
unless ($self->{"_HANDLE"} >= 1) {
$self->{"_HANDLE"} = 0;
return 0 if ($quiet);
return if (nocarp);
OS_Error;
carp "can't open device: $self->{NAME}\n";
return;
}
 
# let Win32 know we allowed room for modem properties
$CP_Length = 300;
$CP_ProvSpec1 = COMMPROP_INITIALIZED;
$CommProperties = pack($CP_format0,
$CP_Length,
$CommPropBlank,
$CP_ProvSpec1,
$CommPropBlank);
 
$ok=GetCommProperties($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $CommProperties);
 
unless ( $ok ) {
OS_Error;
carp "can't get COMMPROP block";
undef $self;
return;
}
 
($CP_Length,
$CP_Version,
$CP_ServiceMask,
$CP_Reserved1,
$self->{"_MaxTxQueue"},
$self->{"_MaxRxQueue"},
$CP_MaxBaud,
$self->{"_TYPE"},
$CP_ProvCapabilities,
$CP_SettableParams,
$CP_SettableBaud,
$CP_SettableData,
$CP_SettableStopParity,
$self->{WRITEBUF},
$self->{READBUF},
$CP_ProvSpec1,
$CP_ProvSpec2,
$CP_ProvChar_start,
$CP_Filler)= unpack($CP_format1, $CommProperties);
 
if (($CP_Length > 64) and ($self->{"_TYPE"} == PST_RS232)) {
carp "invalid COMMPROP block length= $CP_Length";
undef $self;
return;
}
if ($CP_ServiceMask != SP_SERIALCOMM) {
carp "doesn't claim to be a serial port\n";
undef $self;
return;
}
if ($self->{"_TYPE"} == PST_MODEM) {
($CP_Length,
$CP_Version,
$CP_ServiceMask,
$CP_Reserved1,
$self->{"_MaxTxQueue"},
$self->{"_MaxRxQueue"},
$CP_MaxBaud,
$self->{"_TYPE"},
$CP_ProvCapabilities,
$CP_SettableParams,
$CP_SettableBaud,
$CP_SettableData,
$CP_SettableStopParity,
$self->{WRITEBUF},
$self->{READBUF},
$CP_ProvSpec1,
$CP_ProvSpec2,
$CP_ProvChar_start,
$MC_ReqSize,
$MC_SpecOffset,
$MC_SpecSize,
$MC_ProvVersion,
$MC_ManfOffset,
$MC_ManfSize,
$MC_ModOffset,
$MC_ModSize,
$MC_VerOffset,
$MC_VerSize,
$MC_DialOpt,
$MC_CallFailTime,
$MC_IdleTime,
$MC_SpkrVol,
$MC_SpkrMode,
$MC_ModOpt,
$MC_MaxDTE,
$MC_MaxDCE,
$MC_Filler)= unpack($CP_format6, $CommProperties);
if ($Babble) {
printf "\nMODEMDEVCAPS:\n";
printf "\$MC_ActualSize= %d\n", $CP_ProvChar_start;
printf "\$MC_ReqSize= %d\n", $MC_ReqSize;
printf "\$MC_SpecOffset= %d\n", $MC_SpecOffset;
printf "\$MC_SpecSize= %d\n", $MC_SpecSize;
if ($MC_SpecOffset) {
printf " DeviceSpecificData= %s\n", substr ($CommProperties,
60+$MC_SpecOffset, $MC_SpecSize);
}
printf "\$MC_ProvVersion= %d\n", $MC_ProvVersion;
printf "\$MC_ManfOffset= %d\n", $MC_ManfOffset;
printf "\$MC_ManfSize= %d\n", $MC_ManfSize;
if ($MC_ManfOffset) {
printf " Manufacturer= %s\n", substr ($CommProperties,
60+$MC_ManfOffset, $MC_ManfSize);
}
printf "\$MC_ModOffset= %d\n", $MC_ModOffset;
printf "\$MC_ModSize= %d\n", $MC_ModSize;
if ($MC_ModOffset) {
printf " Model= %s\n", substr ($CommProperties,
60+$MC_ModOffset, $MC_ModSize);
}
printf "\$MC_VerOffset= %d\n", $MC_VerOffset;
printf "\$MC_VerSize= %d\n", $MC_VerSize;
if ($MC_VerOffset) {
printf " Version= %s\n", substr ($CommProperties,
60+$MC_VerOffset, $MC_VerSize);
}
printf "\$MC_DialOpt= %lx\n", $MC_DialOpt;
printf "\$MC_CallFailTime= %d\n", $MC_CallFailTime;
printf "\$MC_IdleTime= %d\n", $MC_IdleTime;
printf "\$MC_SpkrVol= %d\n", $MC_SpkrVol;
printf "\$MC_SpkrMode= %d\n", $MC_SpkrMode;
printf "\$MC_ModOpt= %lx\n", $MC_ModOpt;
printf "\$MC_MaxDTE= %d\n", $MC_MaxDTE;
printf "\$MC_MaxDCE= %d\n", $MC_MaxDCE;
$MC_Filler= $MC_Filler; # for -w
}
## $MC_ReqSize = 250;
if ($CP_ProvChar_start != $MC_ReqSize) {
printf "\nARGH, a Bug! The \$CommProperties buffer must be ";
printf "at least %d bytes.\n", $MC_ReqSize+60;
}
}
## if (1 | $Babble) {
if ($Babble) {
printf "\$CP_Length= %d\n", $CP_Length;
printf "\$CP_Version= %d\n", $CP_Version;
printf "\$CP_ServiceMask= %lx\n", $CP_ServiceMask;
printf "\$CP_Reserved1= %lx\n", $CP_Reserved1;
printf "\$CP_MaxTxQueue= %lx\n", $self->{"_MaxTxQueue"};
printf "\$CP_MaxRxQueue= %lx\n", $self->{"_MaxRxQueue"};
printf "\$CP_MaxBaud= %lx\n", $CP_MaxBaud;
printf "\$CP_ProvSubType= %lx\n", $self->{"_TYPE"};
printf "\$CP_ProvCapabilities= %lx\n", $CP_ProvCapabilities;
printf "\$CP_SettableParams= %lx\n", $CP_SettableParams;
printf "\$CP_SettableBaud= %lx\n", $CP_SettableBaud;
printf "\$CP_SettableData= %x\n", $CP_SettableData;
printf "\$CP_SettableStopParity= %x\n", $CP_SettableStopParity;
printf "\$CP_CurrentTxQueue= %lx\n", $self->{WRITEBUF};
printf "\$CP_CurrentRxQueue= %lx\n", $self->{READBUF};
printf "\$CP_ProvSpec1= %lx\n", $CP_ProvSpec1;
printf "\$CP_ProvSpec2= %lx\n", $CP_ProvSpec2;
}
 
# "private" data
$self->{"_INIT"} = undef;
$self->{"_DEBUG_C"} = 0;
$self->{"_LATCH"} = 0;
$self->{"_W_BUSY"} = 0;
$self->{"_R_BUSY"} = 0;
 
$self->{"_TBUFMAX"} = $self->{"_MaxTxQueue"} ?
$self->{"_MaxTxQueue"} : LONGsize;
$self->{"_RBUFMAX"} = $self->{"_MaxRxQueue"} ?
$self->{"_MaxRxQueue"} : LONGsize;
 
# buffers
$self->{"_R_OVERLAP"} = " "x24;
$self->{"_W_OVERLAP"} = " "x24;
$self->{"_TIMEOUT"} = " "x24;
$self->{"_RBUF"} = " "x $RBUF_Size;
 
# allowed setting hashes
$self->{"_L_BAUD"} = {};
$self->{"_L_STOP"} = {};
$self->{"_L_PARITY"} = {};
$self->{"_L_DATA"} = {};
$self->{"_L_HSHAKE"} = {};
 
# capability flags
 
$fmask = $CP_SettableParams;
$self->{"_C_BAUD"} = $fmask & SP_BAUD;
$self->{"_C_DATA"} = $fmask & SP_DATABITS;
$self->{"_C_STOP"} = $fmask & SP_STOPBITS;
$self->{"_C_HSHAKE"} = $fmask & SP_HANDSHAKING;
$self->{"_C_PARITY_CFG"} = $fmask & SP_PARITY;
$self->{"_C_PARITY_EN"} = $fmask & SP_PARITY_CHECK;
$self->{"_C_RLSD_CFG"} = $fmask & SP_RLSD;
 
$fmask = $CP_ProvCapabilities;
$self->{"_C_RLSD"} = $fmask & PCF_RLSD;
$self->{"_C_PARITY_CK"} = $fmask & PCF_PARITY_CHECK;
$self->{"_C_DTRDSR"} = $fmask & PCF_DTRDSR;
$self->{"_C_16BITMODE"} = $fmask & PCF_16BITMODE;
$self->{"_C_RTSCTS"} = $fmask & PCF_RTSCTS;
$self->{"_C_XONXOFF"} = $fmask & PCF_XONXOFF;
$self->{"_C_XON_CHAR"} = $fmask & PCF_SETXCHAR;
$self->{"_C_SPECHAR"} = $fmask & PCF_SPECIALCHARS;
$self->{"_C_INT_TIME"} = $fmask & PCF_INTTIMEOUTS;
$self->{"_C_TOT_TIME"} = $fmask & PCF_TOTALTIMEOUTS;
 
if ($self->{"_C_INT_TIME"}) {
$self->{"_N_RINT"} = LONGsize; # min interval default
}
else {
$self->{"_N_RINT"} = 0;
}
$self->{"_N_RTOT"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_RCONST"} = 0;
 
if ($self->{"_C_TOT_TIME"}) {
$self->{"_N_WCONST"} = 201; # startup overhead + 1
$self->{"_N_WTOT"} = 11; # per char out + 1
}
else {
$self->{"_N_WTOT"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_WCONST"} = 0;
}
 
$hr = \%{$self->{"_L_HSHAKE"}};
 
if ($self->{"_C_HSHAKE"}) {
${$hr}{"xoff"} = "xoff" if ($fmask & PCF_XONXOFF);
${$hr}{"rts"} = "rts" if ($fmask & PCF_RTSCTS);
${$hr}{"dtr"} = "dtr" if ($fmask & PCF_DTRDSR);
${$hr}{"none"} = "none";
}
else { $self->{"_N_HSHAKE"} = undef; }
 
#### really just using the keys here, so value = Win32_definition
#### in case we ever need it for something else
 
# first check for programmable baud
 
$hr = \%{$self->{"_L_BAUD"}};
 
if ($CP_MaxBaud & BAUD_USER) {
$fmask = $CP_SettableBaud;
${$hr}{110} = CBR_110 if ($fmask & BAUD_110);
${$hr}{300} = CBR_300 if ($fmask & BAUD_300);
${$hr}{600} = CBR_600 if ($fmask & BAUD_600);
${$hr}{1200} = CBR_1200 if ($fmask & BAUD_1200);
${$hr}{2400} = CBR_2400 if ($fmask & BAUD_2400);
${$hr}{4800} = CBR_4800 if ($fmask & BAUD_4800);
${$hr}{9600} = CBR_9600 if ($fmask & BAUD_9600);
${$hr}{14400} = CBR_14400 if ($fmask & BAUD_14400);
${$hr}{19200} = CBR_19200 if ($fmask & BAUD_19200);
${$hr}{38400} = CBR_38400 if ($fmask & BAUD_38400);
${$hr}{56000} = CBR_56000 if ($fmask & BAUD_56K);
${$hr}{57600} = CBR_57600 if ($fmask & BAUD_57600);
${$hr}{115200} = CBR_115200 if ($fmask & BAUD_115200);
${$hr}{128000} = CBR_128000 if ($fmask & BAUD_128K);
${$hr}{256000} = CBR_256000 if (0); # reserved ??
}
else {
# get fixed baud from CP_MaxBaud
$fmask = $CP_MaxBaud;
$fix_baud = 75 if ($fmask & BAUD_075);
$fix_baud = 110 if ($fmask & BAUD_110);
$fix_baud = 134.5 if ($fmask & BAUD_134_5);
$fix_baud = 150 if ($fmask & BAUD_150);
$fix_baud = 300 if ($fmask & BAUD_300);
$fix_baud = 600 if ($fmask & BAUD_600);
$fix_baud = 1200 if ($fmask & BAUD_1200);
$fix_baud = 1800 if ($fmask & BAUD_1800);
$fix_baud = 2400 if ($fmask & BAUD_2400);
$fix_baud = 4800 if ($fmask & BAUD_4800);
$fix_baud = 7200 if ($fmask & BAUD_7200);
$fix_baud = 9600 if ($fmask & BAUD_9600);
$fix_baud = 14400 if ($fmask & BAUD_14400);
$fix_baud = 19200 if ($fmask & BAUD_19200);
$fix_baud = 34800 if ($fmask & BAUD_38400);
$fix_baud = 56000 if ($fmask & BAUD_56K);
$fix_baud = 57600 if ($fmask & BAUD_57600);
$fix_baud = 115200 if ($fmask & BAUD_115200);
$fix_baud = 128000 if ($fmask & BAUD_128K);
${$hr}{$fix_baud} = $fix_baud;
$self->{"_N_BAUD"} = undef;
}
 
#### data bits
 
$fmask = $CP_SettableData;
 
if ($self->{"_C_DATA"}) {
 
$hr = \%{$self->{"_L_DATA"}};
 
${$hr}{5} = 5 if ($fmask & DATABITS_5);
${$hr}{6} = 6 if ($fmask & DATABITS_6);
${$hr}{7} = 7 if ($fmask & DATABITS_7);
${$hr}{8} = 8 if ($fmask & DATABITS_8);
${$hr}{16} = 16 if ($fmask & DATABITS_16);
## ${$hr}{16X} = 16 if ($fmask & DATABITS_16X);
}
else { $self->{"_N_DATA"} = undef; }
 
#### value = (DCB Win32_definition + 1) so 0 means unchanged
 
$fmask = $CP_SettableStopParity;
 
if ($self->{"_C_STOP"}) {
 
$hr = \%{$self->{"_L_STOP"}};
 
${$hr}{1} = 1 + ONESTOPBIT if ($fmask & STOPBITS_10);
${$hr}{1.5} = 1 + ONE5STOPBITS if ($fmask & STOPBITS_15);
${$hr}{2} = 1 + TWOSTOPBITS if ($fmask & STOPBITS_20);
}
else { $self->{"_N_STOP"} = undef; }
 
if ($self->{"_C_PARITY_CFG"}) {
 
$hr = \%{$self->{"_L_PARITY"}};
 
${$hr}{"none"} = 1 + NOPARITY if ($fmask & PARITY_NONE);
${$hr}{"even"} = 1 + EVENPARITY if ($fmask & PARITY_EVEN);
${$hr}{"odd"} = 1 + ODDPARITY if ($fmask & PARITY_ODD);
${$hr}{"mark"} = 1 + MARKPARITY if ($fmask & PARITY_MARK);
${$hr}{"space"} = 1 + SPACEPARITY if ($fmask & PARITY_SPACE);
}
else { $self->{"_N_PARITY"} = undef; }
 
$hr = 0; # no loops
 
# changable dcb parameters
# 0 = no change requested
# mask_on: requested value for OR
# mask_off: complement of requested value for AND
 
$self->{"_N_FM_ON"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} = 0;
 
$self->{"_N_AUX_ON"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} = 0;
 
### "VALUE" is initialized from DCB by default (but also in %validate)
 
# 0 = no change requested
# integer: requested value or (value+1 if 0 is a legal value)
# binary: 1=false requested, 2=true requested
 
$self->{"_N_XONLIM"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_XOFFLIM"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_XOFFCHAR"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_XONCHAR"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_ERRCHAR"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_EOFCHAR"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_EVTCHAR"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_BINARY"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_PARITY_EN"} = 0;
 
### "_N_items" for save/start
 
$self->{"_N_READBUF"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_WRITEBUF"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_HSHAKE"} = 0;
 
### The "required" DCB values are deliberately NOT defined. That way,
### write_settings can verify they "exist" to assure they got set.
### $self->{"_N_BAUD"}
### $self->{"_N_DATA"}
### $self->{"_N_STOP"}
### $self->{"_N_PARITY"}
 
 
$self->{"_R_EVENT"} = CreateEvent($null, # no security
1, # explicit reset req
0, # initial event reset
$null); # no name
unless ($self->{"_R_EVENT"}) {
OS_Error;
carp "could not create required read event";
undef $self;
return;
}
 
$self->{"_W_EVENT"} = CreateEvent($null, # no security
1, # explicit reset req
0, # initial event reset
$null); # no name
unless ($self->{"_W_EVENT"}) {
OS_Error;
carp "could not create required write event";
undef $self;
return;
}
$self->{"_R_OVERLAP"} = pack($OVERLAPPEDformat,
$zero, # osRead_Internal,
$zero, # osRead_InternalHigh,
$zero, # osRead_Offset,
$zero, # osRead_OffsetHigh,
$self->{"_R_EVENT"});
$self->{"_W_OVERLAP"} = pack($OVERLAPPEDformat,
$zero, # osWrite_Internal,
$zero, # osWrite_InternalHigh,
$zero, # osWrite_Offset,
$zero, # osWrite_OffsetHigh,
$self->{"_W_EVENT"});
 
# Device Control Block (DCB)
unless ( fetch_DCB ($self) ) {
carp "can't read Device Control Block for $self->{NAME}\n";
undef $self;
return;
}
$self->{"_L_BAUD"}{$self->{BAUD}} = $self->{BAUD}; # actual must be ok
 
# Read Timeouts
unless ( GetCommTimeouts($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $self->{"_TIMEOUT"}) ) {
carp "Error in GetCommTimeouts";
undef $self;
return;
}
 
($self->{RINT},
$self->{RTOT},
$self->{RCONST},
$self->{WTOT},
$self->{WCONST})= unpack($TIMEOUTformat, $self->{"_TIMEOUT"});
 
bless ($self, $class);
return $self;
}
 
sub fetch_DCB {
my $self = shift;
my $ok;
my $hr;
my $fmask;
my $key;
my $value;
my $dcb = " "x32;
 
GetCommState($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $dcb) or return;
 
($self->{"_DCBLength"},
$self->{BAUD},
$self->{"_BitMask"},
$self->{"_ResvWORD"},
$self->{XONLIM},
$self->{XOFFLIM},
$self->{DATA},
$self->{"_Parity"},
$self->{"_StopBits"},
$self->{XONCHAR},
$self->{XOFFCHAR},
$self->{ERRCHAR},
$self->{EOFCHAR},
$self->{EVTCHAR},
$self->{"_PackWORD"})= unpack($DCBformat, $dcb);
 
if ($self->{"_DCBLength"} > 32) {
carp "invalid DCB block length";
return;
}
 
if ($Babble) {
printf "DCBLength= %d\n", $self->{"_DCBLength"};
printf "BaudRate= %d\n", $self->{BAUD};
printf "BitMask= %lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"};
printf "ResvWORD= %x\n", $self->{"_ResvWORD"};
printf "XonLim= %x\n", $self->{XONLIM};
printf "XoffLim= %x\n", $self->{XOFFLIM};
printf "ByteSize= %d\n", $self->{DATA};
printf "Parity= %d\n", $self->{"_Parity"};
printf "StopBits= %d\n", $self->{"_StopBits"};
printf "XonChar= %x\n", $self->{XONCHAR};
printf "XoffChar= %x\n", $self->{XOFFCHAR};
printf "ErrorChar= %x\n", $self->{ERRCHAR};
printf "EofChar= %x\n", $self->{EOFCHAR};
printf "EvtChar= %x\n", $self->{EVTCHAR};
printf "PackWORD= %x\n", $self->{"_PackWORD"};
printf "handle= %d\n\n", $self->{"_HANDLE"};
}
 
$fmask = 1 + $self->{"_StopBits"};
while (($key, $value) = each %{ $self->{"_L_STOP"} }) {
if ($value == $fmask) {
$self->{STOP} = $key;
}
}
 
$fmask = 1 + $self->{"_Parity"};
while (($key, $value) = each %{ $self->{"_L_PARITY"} }) {
if ($value == $fmask) {
$self->{PARITY} = $key;
}
}
 
$fmask = $self->{"_BitMask"};
 
$hr = DTR_CONTROL_HANDSHAKE;
$ok = RTS_CONTROL_HANDSHAKE;
 
if ($fmask & ( $hr << 4) ) {
$self->{HSHAKE} = "dtr";
}
elsif ($fmask & ( $ok << 12) ) {
$self->{HSHAKE} = "rts";
}
elsif ($fmask & ( FM_fOutX | FM_fInX ) ) {
$self->{HSHAKE} = "xoff";
}
else {
$self->{HSHAKE} = "none";
}
 
$self->{BINARY} = ($fmask & FM_fBinary);
$self->{PARITY_EN} = ($fmask & FM_fParity);
 
if ($fmask & FM_fDummy2) {
carp "Unknown DCB Flow Mask Bit in $self->{NAME}";
}
1;
}
 
sub init_done {
my $self = shift;
return 0 unless (defined $self->{"_INIT"});
return $self->{"_INIT"};
}
 
sub update_DCB {
my $self = shift;
my $ok = 0;
 
return unless (defined $self->{"_INIT"});
 
fetch_DCB ($self);
 
if ($self->{"_N_HSHAKE"}) {
$self->{HSHAKE} = $self->{"_N_HSHAKE"};
if ($self->{HSHAKE} eq "dtr" ) {
$self->{"_N_FM_ON"} = 0x1028;
$self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} = 0xffffdceb;
}
elsif ($self->{HSHAKE} eq "rts" ) {
$self->{"_N_FM_ON"} = 0x2014;
$self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} = 0xffffecd7;
}
elsif ($self->{HSHAKE} eq "xoff" ) {
$self->{"_N_FM_ON"} = 0x1310;
$self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} = 0xffffdfd3;
}
else {
$self->{"_N_FM_ON"} = 0x1010;
$self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} = 0xffffdcd3;
}
$self->{"_N_HSHAKE"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_PARITY_EN"}) {
if (2 == $self->{"_N_PARITY_EN"}) {
$self->{"_N_FM_ON"} |= FM_fParity; # enable
if ($self->{"_N_FM_OFF"}) {
$self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} |= FM_fParity;
}
else { $self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} = LONGsize; }
}
else {
if ($self->{"_N_FM_ON"}) {
$self->{"_N_FM_ON"} &= ~FM_fParity; # disable
}
if ($self->{"_N_FM_OFF"}) {
$self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} &= ~FM_fParity;
}
else { $self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} = ~FM_fParity; }
}
## DEBUG ##
## printf "_N_FM_ON=%lx\n", $self->{"_N_FM_ON"}; ## DEBUG ##
## printf "_N_FM_OFF=%lx\n", $self->{"_N_FM_OFF"}; ## DEBUG ##
## DEBUG ##
$self->{"_N_PARITY_EN"} = 0;
}
 
## DEBUG ##
## printf "_N_AUX_ON=%lx\n", $self->{"_N_AUX_ON"}; ## DEBUG ##
## printf "_N_AUX_OFF=%lx\n", $self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"}; ## DEBUG ##
## DEBUG ##
 
if ( $self->{"_N_AUX_ON"} or $self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} ) {
if ( $self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} ) {
$self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} &= $self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"};
}
else {
$self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} = $self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"};
}
$self->{"_N_FM_ON"} |= $self->{"_N_AUX_ON"};
$self->{"_N_AUX_ON"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} = 0;
}
## DEBUG ##
## printf "_N_FM_ON=%lx\n", $self->{"_N_FM_ON"}; ## DEBUG ##
## printf "_N_FM_OFF=%lx\n", $self->{"_N_FM_OFF"}; ## DEBUG ##
## DEBUG ##
 
if ( $self->{"_N_FM_ON"} or $self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} ) {
$self->{"_BitMask"} &= $self->{"_N_FM_OFF"};
$self->{"_BitMask"} |= $self->{"_N_FM_ON"};
$self->{"_N_FM_ON"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_FM_OFF"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_XONLIM"}) {
$self->{XONLIM} = $self->{"_N_XONLIM"} - 1;
$self->{"_N_XONLIM"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_XOFFLIM"}) {
$self->{XOFFLIM} = $self->{"_N_XOFFLIM"} - 1;
$self->{"_N_XOFFLIM"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_BAUD"}) {
$self->{BAUD} = $self->{"_N_BAUD"};
$self->{"_N_BAUD"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_DATA"}) {
$self->{DATA} = $self->{"_N_DATA"};
$self->{"_N_DATA"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_STOP"}) {
$self->{"_StopBits"} = $self->{"_N_STOP"} - 1;
$self->{"_N_STOP"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_PARITY"}) {
$self->{"_Parity"} = $self->{"_N_PARITY"} - 1;
$self->{"_N_PARITY"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_XONCHAR"}) {
$self->{XONCHAR} = $self->{"_N_XONCHAR"} - 1;
$self->{"_N_XONCHAR"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_XOFFCHAR"}) {
$self->{XOFFCHAR} = $self->{"_N_XOFFCHAR"} - 1;
$self->{"_N_XOFFCHAR"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_ERRCHAR"}) {
$self->{ERRCHAR} = $self->{"_N_ERRCHAR"} - 1;
$self->{"_N_ERRCHAR"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_EOFCHAR"}) {
$self->{EOFCHAR} = $self->{"_N_EOFCHAR"} - 1;
$self->{"_N_EOFCHAR"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_EVTCHAR"}) {
$self->{EVTCHAR} = $self->{"_N_EVTCHAR"} - 1;
$self->{"_N_EVTCHAR"} = 0;
}
 
my $dcb = pack($DCBformat,
$self->{"_DCBLength"},
$self->{BAUD},
$self->{"_BitMask"},
$self->{"_ResvWORD"},
$self->{XONLIM},
$self->{XOFFLIM},
$self->{DATA},
$self->{"_Parity"},
$self->{"_StopBits"},
$self->{XONCHAR},
$self->{XOFFCHAR},
$self->{ERRCHAR},
$self->{EOFCHAR},
$self->{EVTCHAR},
$self->{"_PackWORD"});
 
if ( SetCommState($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $dcb) ) {
print "updated DCB for $self->{NAME}\n" if ($Babble);
## DEBUG ##
## printf "DEBUG BitMask= %lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"}; ## DEBUG ##
## DEBUG ##
}
else {
carp "SetCommState failed";
OS_Error;
if ($Babble) {
printf "\ntried to write:\n";
printf "DCBLength= %d\n", $self->{"_DCBLength"};
printf "BaudRate= %d\n", $self->{BAUD};
printf "BitMask= %lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"};
printf "ResvWORD= %x\n", $self->{"_ResvWORD"};
printf "XonLim= %x\n", $self->{XONLIM};
printf "XoffLim= %x\n", $self->{XOFFLIM};
printf "ByteSize= %d\n", $self->{DATA};
printf "Parity= %d\n", $self->{"_Parity"};
printf "StopBits= %d\n", $self->{"_StopBits"};
printf "XonChar= %x\n", $self->{XONCHAR};
printf "XoffChar= %x\n", $self->{XOFFCHAR};
printf "ErrorChar= %x\n", $self->{ERRCHAR};
printf "EofChar= %x\n", $self->{EOFCHAR};
printf "EvtChar= %x\n", $self->{EVTCHAR};
printf "PackWORD= %x\n", $self->{"_PackWORD"};
printf "handle= %d\n", $self->{"_HANDLE"};
}
}
}
 
sub initialize {
my $self = shift;
my $item;
my $fault = 0;
foreach $item (@_) {
unless (exists $self->{"_N_$item"}) {
# must be "exists" so undef=not_settable
$fault++;
nocarp or carp "Missing REQUIRED setting for $item";
}
}
unless ($self->{"_INIT"}) {
$self->{"_INIT"} = 1 unless ($fault);
$self->{"_BitMask"} = 0x1011;
$self->{XONLIM} = 100 unless ($self->{"_N_XONLIM"});
$self->{XOFFLIM} = 100 unless ($self->{"_N_XOFFLIM"});
$self->{XONCHAR} = 0x11 unless ($self->{"_N_XONCHAR"});
$self->{XOFFCHAR} = 0x13 unless ($self->{"_N_XOFFCHAR"});
$self->{ERRCHAR} = 0 unless ($self->{"_N_ERRCHAR"});
$self->{EOFCHAR} = 0 unless ($self->{"_N_EOFCHAR"});
$self->{EVTCHAR} = 0 unless ($self->{"_N_EVTCHAR"});
 
update_timeouts($self);
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_READBUF"} or $self->{"_N_WRITEBUF"}) {
if ($self->{"_N_READBUF"}) {
$self->{READBUF} = $self->{"_N_READBUF"};
}
if ($self->{"_N_WRITEBUF"}) {
$self->{WRITEBUF} = $self->{"_N_WRITEBUF"};
}
$self->{"_N_READBUF"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_WRITEBUF"} = 0;
SetupComm($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $self->{READBUF}, $self->{WRITEBUF});
}
purge_all($self);
return $fault;
}
 
sub is_status {
my $self = shift;
my $ok = 0;
my $error_p = " "x4;
my $CommStatus = " "x12;
 
if (@_ and $testactive) {
$self->{"_LATCH"} |= shift;
}
 
$ok=ClearCommError($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $error_p, $CommStatus);
 
my $Error_BitMask = unpack("L", $error_p);
$self->{"_LATCH"} |= $Error_BitMask;
my @stat = unpack($COMSTATformat, $CommStatus);
push @stat, $self->{"_LATCH"};
 
$stat[ST_BLOCK] &= BM_AllBits;
if ( $Babble or $self->{"_DEBUG_C"} ) {
printf "Blocking Bits= %d\n", $stat[ST_BLOCK];
printf "Input Queue= %d\n", $stat[ST_INPUT];
printf "Output Queue= %d\n", $stat[ST_OUTPUT];
printf "Latched Errors= %d\n", $stat[ST_ERROR];
printf "ok= %d\n", $ok;
}
return ($ok ? @stat : undef);
}
 
sub reset_error {
my $self = shift;
my $was = $self->{"_LATCH"};
$self->{"_LATCH"} = 0;
return $was;
}
 
sub can_baud {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_BAUD"};
}
 
sub can_databits {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_DATA"};
}
 
sub can_stopbits {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_STOP"};
}
 
sub can_dtrdsr {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_DTRDSR"};
}
 
sub can_handshake {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_HSHAKE"};
}
 
sub can_parity_check {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_PARITY_CK"};
}
 
sub can_parity_config {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_PARITY_CFG"};
}
 
sub can_parity_enable {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_PARITY_EN"};
}
 
sub can_rlsd_config {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_RLSD_CFG"};
}
 
sub can_rlsd {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_RLSD"};
}
 
sub can_16bitmode {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_16BITMODE"};
}
 
sub is_rs232 {
my $self = shift;
return ($self->{"_TYPE"} == PST_RS232);
}
 
sub is_modem {
my $self = shift;
return ($self->{"_TYPE"} == PST_MODEM);
}
 
sub can_rtscts {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_RTSCTS"};
}
 
sub can_xonxoff {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_XONXOFF"};
}
 
sub can_xon_char {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_XON_CHAR"};
}
 
sub can_spec_char {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_SPECHAR"};
}
 
sub can_interval_timeout {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_INT_TIME"};
}
 
sub can_total_timeout {
my $self = shift;
return $self->{"_C_TOT_TIME"};
}
 
sub is_handshake {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless $self->{"_C_HSHAKE"};
return unless (defined $self->{"_L_HSHAKE"}{$_[0]});
$self->{"_N_HSHAKE"} = $self->{"_L_HSHAKE"}{$_[0]};
update_DCB ($self);
}
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
return $self->{HSHAKE};
}
 
sub are_handshake {
my $self = shift;
return unless $self->{"_C_HSHAKE"};
return if (@_);
return keys(%{$self->{"_L_HSHAKE"}});
}
 
sub is_baudrate {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless $self->{"_C_BAUD"};
return unless (defined $self->{"_L_BAUD"}{$_[0]});
$self->{"_N_BAUD"} = int shift;
update_DCB ($self);
}
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
return $self->{BAUD};
}
 
sub are_baudrate {
my $self = shift;
return unless $self->{"_C_BAUD"};
return if (@_);
return keys(%{$self->{"_L_BAUD"}});
}
 
sub is_parity {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless $self->{"_C_PARITY_CFG"};
return unless (defined $self->{"_L_PARITY"}{$_[0]});
$self->{"_N_PARITY"} = $self->{"_L_PARITY"}{$_[0]};
update_DCB ($self);
}
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
return $self->{PARITY};
}
 
sub are_parity {
my $self = shift;
return unless $self->{"_C_PARITY_CFG"};
return if (@_);
return keys(%{$self->{"_L_PARITY"}});
}
 
sub is_databits {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless $self->{"_C_DATA"};
return unless (defined $self->{"_L_DATA"}{$_[0]});
$self->{"_N_DATA"} = $self->{"_L_DATA"}{$_[0]};
update_DCB ($self);
}
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
return $self->{DATA};
}
 
sub are_databits {
my $self = shift;
return unless $self->{"_C_DATA"};
return if (@_);
return keys(%{$self->{"_L_DATA"}});
}
 
sub is_stopbits {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless $self->{"_C_STOP"};
return unless (defined $self->{"_L_STOP"}{$_[0]});
$self->{"_N_STOP"} = $self->{"_L_STOP"}{$_[0]};
update_DCB ($self);
}
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
return $self->{STOP};
}
 
sub are_stopbits {
my $self = shift;
return unless $self->{"_C_STOP"};
return if (@_);
return keys(%{$self->{"_L_STOP"}});
}
 
# single value for save/start
sub is_read_buf {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) { $self->{"_N_READBUF"} = int shift; }
return $self->{READBUF};
}
 
# single value for save/start
sub is_write_buf {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) { $self->{"_N_WRITEBUF"} = int shift; }
return $self->{WRITEBUF};
}
 
sub is_buffers {
my $self = shift;
 
return unless (@_ == 2);
my $rbuf = shift;
my $wbuf = shift;
SetupComm($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $rbuf, $wbuf) or return;
$self->{"_N_READBUF"} = 0;
$self->{"_N_WRITEBUF"} = 0;
$self->{READBUF} = $rbuf;
$self->{WRITEBUF} = $wbuf;
1;
}
 
sub read_bg {
return unless (@_ == 2);
my $self = shift;
my $wanted = shift;
return unless ($wanted > 0);
if ($self->{"_R_BUSY"}) {
nocarp or carp "Second Read attempted before First is done";
return;
}
my $got_p = " "x4;
my $ok;
my $got = 0;
if ($wanted > $RBUF_Size) {
$wanted = $RBUF_Size;
warn "read buffer limited to $RBUF_Size bytes at the moment";
}
$self->{"_R_BUSY"} = 1;
 
$ok=ReadFile( $self->{"_HANDLE"},
$self->{"_RBUF"},
$wanted,
$got_p,
$self->{"_R_OVERLAP"});
 
if ($ok) {
$got = unpack("L", $got_p);
$self->{"_R_BUSY"} = 0;
}
return $got;
}
 
sub write_bg {
return unless (@_ == 2);
my $self = shift;
my $wbuf = shift;
if ($self->{"_W_BUSY"}) {
nocarp or carp "Second Write attempted before First is done";
return;
}
my $ok;
my $got_p = " "x4;
return 0 if ($wbuf eq "");
my $lbuf = length ($wbuf);
my $written = 0;
$self->{"_W_BUSY"} = 1;
 
$ok=WriteFile( $self->{"_HANDLE"},
$wbuf,
$lbuf,
$got_p,
$self->{"_W_OVERLAP"});
 
if ($ok) {
$written = unpack("L", $got_p);
$self->{"_W_BUSY"} = 0;
}
if ($Babble) {
print "error=$ok\n";
print "wbuf=$wbuf\n";
print "lbuf=$lbuf\n";
print "write_bg=$written\n";
}
return $written;
}
 
sub read_done {
return unless (@_ == 2);
my $self = shift;
my $wait = yes_true ( shift );
my $ov;
my $got_p = " "x4;
my $wanted = 0;
$self->{"_R_BUSY"} = 1;
 
$ov=GetOverlappedResult( $self->{"_HANDLE"},
$self->{"_R_OVERLAP"},
$got_p,
$wait);
if ($ov) {
$wanted = unpack("L", $got_p);
$self->{"_R_BUSY"} = 0;
print "read_done=$wanted\n" if ($Babble);
return (1, $wanted, substr($self->{"_RBUF"}, 0, $wanted));
}
return (0, 0, "");
}
 
sub write_done {
return unless (@_ == 2);
my $self = shift;
my $wait = yes_true ( shift );
my $ov;
my $got_p = " "x4;
my $written = 0;
$self->{"_W_BUSY"} = 1;
 
$ov=GetOverlappedResult( $self->{"_HANDLE"},
$self->{"_W_OVERLAP"},
$got_p,
$wait);
if ($ov) {
$written = unpack("L", $got_p);
$self->{"_W_BUSY"} = 0;
print "write_done=$written\n" if ($Babble);
return (1, $written);
}
return (0, $written);
}
 
sub purge_all {
my $self = shift;
return if (@_);
 
# PURGE_TXABORT | PURGE_RXABORT | PURGE_TXCLEAR | PURGE_RXCLEAR
unless ( PurgeComm($self->{"_HANDLE"}, 0x0000000f) ) {
carp "Error in PurgeComm";
OS_Error;
return;
}
$self->{"_R_BUSY"} = 0;
$self->{"_W_BUSY"} = 0;
return 1;
}
 
sub purge_rx {
my $self = shift;
return if (@_);
 
# PURGE_RXABORT | PURGE_RXCLEAR
unless ( PurgeComm($self->{"_HANDLE"}, 0x0000000a) ) {
OS_Error;
carp "Error in PurgeComm";
return;
}
$self->{"_R_BUSY"} = 0;
return 1;
}
 
sub purge_tx {
my $self = shift;
return if (@_);
 
# PURGE_TXABORT | PURGE_TXCLEAR
unless ( PurgeComm($self->{"_HANDLE"}, 0x00000005) ) {
OS_Error;
carp "Error in PurgeComm";
return;
}
$self->{"_W_BUSY"} = 0;
return 1;
}
 
sub are_buffers {
my $self = shift;
return if (@_);
return ($self->{READBUF}, $self->{WRITEBUF});
}
 
sub buffer_max {
my $self = shift;
return if (@_);
return ($self->{"_RBUFMAX"}, $self->{"_TBUFMAX"});
}
 
sub suspend_tx {
my $self = shift;
return if (@_);
return SetCommBreak($self->{"_HANDLE"});
}
 
sub resume_tx {
my $self = shift;
return if (@_);
return ClearCommBreak($self->{"_HANDLE"});
}
 
sub xmit_imm_char {
my $self = shift;
return unless (@_ == 1);
my $v = int shift;
unless ( TransmitCommChar($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $v) ) {
carp "Can't transmit char: $v";
return;
}
1;
}
 
sub is_xon_char {
my $self = shift;
if ((@_ == 1) and $self->{"_C_XON_CHAR"}) {
$self->{"_N_XONCHAR"} = 1 + shift;
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
return $self->{XONCHAR};
}
 
sub is_xoff_char {
my $self = shift;
if ((@_ == 1) and $self->{"_C_XON_CHAR"}) {
$self->{"_N_XOFFCHAR"} = 1 + shift;
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
return $self->{XOFFCHAR};
}
 
sub is_eof_char {
my $self = shift;
if ((@_ == 1) and $self->{"_C_SPECHAR"}) {
$self->{"_N_EOFCHAR"} = 1 + shift;
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
return $self->{EOFCHAR};
}
 
sub is_event_char {
my $self = shift;
if ((@_ == 1) and $self->{"_C_SPECHAR"}) {
$self->{"_N_EVTCHAR"} = 1 + shift;
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
return $self->{EVTCHAR};
}
 
sub is_error_char {
my $self = shift;
if ((@_ == 1) and $self->{"_C_SPECHAR"}) {
$self->{"_N_ERRCHAR"} = 1 + shift;
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
return $self->{ERRCHAR};
}
 
sub is_xon_limit {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless ($self->{"_C_XONXOFF"});
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v > SHORTsize));
$self->{"_N_XONLIM"} = ++$v;
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
return $self->{XONLIM};
}
 
sub is_xoff_limit {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless ($self->{"_C_XONXOFF"});
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v > SHORTsize));
$self->{"_N_XOFFLIM"} = ++$v;
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
return $self->{XOFFLIM};
}
 
sub is_read_interval {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless ($self->{"_C_INT_TIME"});
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v > LONGsize));
if ($v == LONGsize) {
$self->{"_N_RINT"} = $v; # Win32 uses as flag
}
else {
$self->{"_N_RINT"} = ++$v;
}
return unless update_timeouts ($self);
}
return $self->{RINT};
}
 
sub is_read_char_time {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless ($self->{"_C_TOT_TIME"});
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v >= LONGsize));
$self->{"_N_RTOT"} = ++$v;
return unless update_timeouts ($self);
}
return $self->{RTOT};
}
 
sub is_read_const_time {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless ($self->{"_C_TOT_TIME"});
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v >= LONGsize));
$self->{"_N_RCONST"} = ++$v;
return unless update_timeouts ($self);
}
return $self->{RCONST};
}
 
sub is_write_const_time {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless ($self->{"_C_TOT_TIME"});
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v >= LONGsize));
$self->{"_N_WCONST"} = ++$v;
return unless update_timeouts ($self);
}
return $self->{WCONST};
}
 
sub is_write_char_time {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
return unless ($self->{"_C_TOT_TIME"});
my $v = int shift;
return if (($v < 0) or ($v >= LONGsize));
$self->{"_N_WTOT"} = ++$v;
return unless update_timeouts ($self);
}
return $self->{WTOT};
}
 
sub update_timeouts {
return unless (@_ == 1);
my $self = shift;
unless ( GetCommTimeouts($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $self->{"_TIMEOUT"}) ) {
carp "Error in GetCommTimeouts";
return;
}
 
($self->{RINT},
$self->{RTOT},
$self->{RCONST},
$self->{WTOT},
$self->{WCONST})= unpack($TIMEOUTformat, $self->{"_TIMEOUT"});
 
if ($self->{"_N_RINT"}) {
if ($self->{"_N_RINT"} == LONGsize) {
$self->{RINT} = $self->{"_N_RINT"}; # Win32 uses as flag
}
else {
$self->{RINT} = $self->{"_N_RINT"} -1;
}
$self->{"_N_RINT"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_RTOT"}) {
$self->{RTOT} = $self->{"_N_RTOT"} -1;
$self->{"_N_RTOT"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_RCONST"}) {
$self->{RCONST} = $self->{"_N_RCONST"} -1;
$self->{"_N_RCONST"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_WTOT"}) {
$self->{WTOT} = $self->{"_N_WTOT"} -1;
$self->{"_N_WTOT"} = 0;
}
 
if ($self->{"_N_WCONST"}) {
$self->{WCONST} = $self->{"_N_WCONST"} -1;
$self->{"_N_WCONST"} = 0;
}
 
$self->{"_TIMEOUT"} = pack($TIMEOUTformat,
$self->{RINT},
$self->{RTOT},
$self->{RCONST},
$self->{WTOT},
$self->{WCONST});
 
if ( SetCommTimeouts($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $self->{"_TIMEOUT"}) ) {
return 1;
}
else {
carp "Error in SetCommTimeouts";
return;
}
}
 
 
# true/false parameters
 
sub is_binary {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
$self->{"_N_BINARY"} = 1 + yes_true ( shift );
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
### printf "_BitMask=%lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"}; ###
return ($self->{"_BitMask"} & FM_fBinary);
}
 
sub is_parity_enable {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
$self->{"_N_PARITY_EN"} = 1 + yes_true ( shift );
update_DCB ($self);
}
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
## printf "_BitMask=%lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"}; ## DEBUG ##
return ($self->{"_BitMask"} & FM_fParity);
}
 
sub ignore_null {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
if ($self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"}) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} &= ~FM_fNull;
}
else {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} = ~FM_fNull;
}
if ( yes_true ( shift ) ) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_ON"} |= FM_fNull;
}
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
## printf "_BitMask=%lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"}; ###
return ($self->{"_BitMask"} & FM_fNull);
}
 
sub ignore_no_dsr {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
if ($self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"}) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} &= ~FM_fDsrSensitivity;
}
else {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} = ~FM_fDsrSensitivity;
}
if ( yes_true ( shift ) ) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_ON"} |= FM_fDsrSensitivity;
}
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
## printf "_BitMask=%lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"}; ###
return ($self->{"_BitMask"} & FM_fDsrSensitivity);
}
 
sub subst_pe_char {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
if ($self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"}) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} &= ~FM_fErrorChar;
}
else {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} = ~FM_fErrorChar;
}
if ( yes_true ( shift ) ) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_ON"} |= FM_fErrorChar;
}
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
## printf "_BitMask=%lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"}; ###
return ($self->{"_BitMask"} & FM_fErrorChar);
}
 
sub abort_on_error {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
if ($self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"}) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} &= ~FM_fAbortOnError;
}
else {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} = ~FM_fAbortOnError;
}
if ( yes_true ( shift ) ) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_ON"} |= FM_fAbortOnError;
}
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
## printf "_BitMask=%lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"}; ###
return ($self->{"_BitMask"} & FM_fAbortOnError);
}
 
sub output_dsr {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
if ($self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"}) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} &= ~FM_fOutxDsrFlow;
}
else {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} = ~FM_fOutxDsrFlow;
}
if ( yes_true ( shift ) ) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_ON"} |= FM_fOutxDsrFlow;
}
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
## printf "_BitMask=%lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"}; ###
return ($self->{"_BitMask"} & FM_fOutxDsrFlow);
}
 
sub output_cts {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
if ($self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"}) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} &= ~FM_fOutxCtsFlow;
}
else {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} = ~FM_fOutxCtsFlow;
}
if ( yes_true ( shift ) ) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_ON"} |= FM_fOutxCtsFlow;
}
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
## printf "_BitMask=%lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"}; ###
return ($self->{"_BitMask"} & FM_fOutxCtsFlow);
}
 
sub input_xoff {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
if ($self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"}) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} &= ~FM_fInX;
}
else {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} = ~FM_fInX;
}
if ( yes_true ( shift ) ) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_ON"} |= FM_fInX;
}
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
## printf "_BitMask=%lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"}; ###
return ($self->{"_BitMask"} & FM_fInX);
}
 
sub output_xoff {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
if ($self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"}) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} &= ~FM_fOutX;
}
else {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} = ~FM_fOutX;
}
if ( yes_true ( shift ) ) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_ON"} |= FM_fOutX;
}
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
## printf "_BitMask=%lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"}; ###
return ($self->{"_BitMask"} & FM_fOutX);
}
 
sub tx_on_xoff {
my $self = shift;
if (@_) {
if ($self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"}) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} &= ~FM_fTXContinueOnXoff;
}
else {
$self->{"_N_AUX_OFF"} = ~FM_fTXContinueOnXoff;
}
if ( yes_true ( shift ) ) {
$self->{"_N_AUX_ON"} |= FM_fTXContinueOnXoff;
}
update_DCB ($self);
}
else {
return unless fetch_DCB ($self);
}
## printf "_BitMask=%lx\n", $self->{"_BitMask"}; ###
return ($self->{"_BitMask"} & FM_fTXContinueOnXoff);
}
 
sub dtr_active {
return unless (@_ == 2);
my $self = shift;
my $onoff = yes_true ( shift ) ? SETDTR : CLRDTR ;
return EscapeCommFunction($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $onoff);
}
 
sub rts_active {
return unless (@_ == 2);
my $self = shift;
my $onoff = yes_true ( shift ) ? SETRTS : CLRRTS ;
return EscapeCommFunction($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $onoff);
}
 
# pulse parameters
 
sub pulse_dtr_off {
return unless (@_ == 2);
if ( ($] < 5.005) and ($] >= 5.004) ) {
nocarp or carp "\npulse_dtr_off not supported on version $]\n";
return;
}
my $self = shift;
my $delay = shift;
$self->dtr_active(0) or carp "Did not pulse DTR off";
Win32::Sleep($delay);
$self->dtr_active(1) or carp "Did not restore DTR on";
Win32::Sleep($delay);
}
 
sub pulse_rts_off {
return unless (@_ == 2);
if ( ($] < 5.005) and ($] >= 5.004) ) {
nocarp or carp "\npulse_rts_off not supported on version $]\n";
return;
}
my $self = shift;
my $delay = shift;
$self->rts_active(0) or carp "Did not pulse RTS off";
Win32::Sleep($delay);
$self->rts_active(1) or carp "Did not restore RTS on";
Win32::Sleep($delay);
}
 
sub pulse_break_on {
return unless (@_ == 2);
if ( ($] < 5.005) and ($] >= 5.004) ) {
nocarp or carp "\npulse_break_on not supported on version $]\n";
return;
}
my $self = shift;
my $delay = shift;
$self->break_active(1) or carp "Did not pulse BREAK on";
Win32::Sleep($delay);
$self->break_active(0) or carp "Did not restore BREAK off";
Win32::Sleep($delay);
}
 
sub pulse_dtr_on {
return unless (@_ == 2);
if ( ($] < 5.005) and ($] >= 5.004) ) {
nocarp or carp "\npulse_dtr_on not supported on version $]\n";
return;
}
my $self = shift;
my $delay = shift;
$self->dtr_active(1) or carp "Did not pulse DTR on";
Win32::Sleep($delay);
$self->dtr_active(0) or carp "Did not restore DTR off";
Win32::Sleep($delay);
}
 
sub pulse_rts_on {
return unless (@_ == 2);
if ( ($] < 5.005) and ($] >= 5.004) ) {
nocarp or carp "\npulse_rts_on not supported on version $]\n";
return;
}
my $self = shift;
my $delay = shift;
$self->rts_active(1) or carp "Did not pulse RTS on";
Win32::Sleep($delay);
$self->rts_active(0) or carp "Did not restore RTS off";
Win32::Sleep($delay);
}
 
sub break_active {
return unless (@_ == 2);
my $self = shift;
my $onoff = yes_true ( shift ) ? SETBREAK : CLRBREAK ;
return EscapeCommFunction($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $onoff);
}
 
sub xon_active {
return unless (@_ == 1);
my $self = shift;
return EscapeCommFunction($self->{"_HANDLE"}, SETXON);
}
 
sub xoff_active {
return unless (@_ == 1);
my $self = shift;
return EscapeCommFunction($self->{"_HANDLE"}, SETXOFF);
}
 
sub is_modemlines {
return unless (@_ == 1);
my $self = shift;
my $mstat = " " x4;
unless ( GetCommModemStatus($self->{"_HANDLE"}, $mstat) ) {
carp "Error in GetCommModemStatus";
return;
}
my $result = unpack ("L", $mstat);
return $result;
}
 
sub debug_comm {
my $self = shift;
if (ref($self)) {
if (@_) { $self->{"_DEBUG_C"} = yes_true ( shift ); }
else {
nocarp or carp "Debug level: $self->{NAME} = $self->{\"_DEBUG_C\"}";
return $self->{"_DEBUG_C"};
}
} else {
$Babble = yes_true ($self);
nocarp or carp "CommPort Debug Class = $Babble";
return $Babble;
}
}
 
sub close {
my $self = shift;
my $ok;
my $success = 1;
 
return unless (defined $self->{NAME});
 
if ($Babble) {
carp "Closing $self " . $self->{NAME};
}
if ($self->{"_HANDLE"}) {
purge_all ($self);
update_timeouts ($self); # if any running ??
$ok=CloseHandle($self->{"_HANDLE"});
if (! $ok) {
print "Error Closing handle $self->{\"_HANDLE\"} for $self->{NAME}\n";
OS_Error;
$success = 0;
}
elsif ($Babble) {
print "Closing Device handle $self->{\"_HANDLE\"} for $self->{NAME}\n";
}
$self->{"_HANDLE"} = undef;
}
if ($self->{"_R_EVENT"}) {
$ok=CloseHandle($self->{"_R_EVENT"});
if (! $ok) {
print "Error closing Read Event handle $self->{\"_R_EVENT\"} for $self->{NAME}\n";
OS_Error;
$success = 0;
}
$self->{"_R_EVENT"} = undef;
}
if ($self->{"_W_EVENT"}) {
$ok=CloseHandle($self->{"_W_EVENT"});
if (! $ok) {
print "Error closing Write Event handle $self->{\"_W_EVENT\"} for $self->{NAME}\n";
OS_Error;
$success = 0;
}
$self->{"_W_EVENT"} = undef;
}
$self->{NAME} = undef;
if ($Babble) {
printf "CommPort close result:%d\n", $success;
}
return $success;
}
 
sub DESTROY {
my $self = shift;
return unless (defined $self->{NAME});
 
if ($Babble or $self->{"_DEBUG_C"}) {
print "Destroying $self->{NAME}\n" if (defined $self->{NAME});
}
$self->close;
}
 
1; # so the require or use succeeds
 
# Autoload methods go after =cut, and are processed by the autosplit program.
 
__END__
 
=pod
 
=head1 NAME
 
Win32API::CommPort - Raw Win32 system API calls for serial communications.
 
=head1 SYNOPSIS
 
use Win32; ## not required under all circumstances
require 5.003;
use Win32API::CommPort qw( :PARAM :STAT 0.19 );
 
## when available ## use Win32API::File 0.07 qw( :ALL );
 
=head2 Constructors
 
$PortObj = new Win32API::CommPort ($PortName, $quiet)
|| die "Can't open $PortName: $^E\n"; # $quiet is optional
 
@required = qw( BAUD DATA STOP );
$faults = $PortObj->initialize(@required);
if ($faults) { die "Required parameters not set before initialize\n"; }
 
=head2 Configuration Utility Methods
 
set_no_messages(1); # test suite use
 
# exported by :PARAM
nocarp || carp "Something fishy";
$a = SHORTsize; # 0xffff
$a = LONGsize; # 0xffffffff
$answer = yes_true("choice"); # 1 or 0
OS_Error unless ($API_Call_OK); # prints error
 
$PortObj->init_done || die "Not done";
 
$PortObj->fetch_DCB || die "Not done";
$PortObj->update_DCB || die "Not done";
 
$milliseconds = $PortObj->get_tick_count;
 
=head2 Capability Methods (read only)
 
# true/false capabilities
$a = $PortObj->can_baud; # else fixed
$a = $PortObj->can_databits;
$a = $PortObj->can_stopbits;
$a = $PortObj->can_dtrdsr;
$a = $PortObj->can_handshake;
$a = $PortObj->can_parity_check;
$a = $PortObj->can_parity_config;
$a = $PortObj->can_parity_enable;
$a = $PortObj->can_rlsd; # receive line signal detect (carrier)
$a = $PortObj->can_rlsd_config;
$a = $PortObj->can_16bitmode;
$a = $PortObj->is_rs232;
$a = $PortObj->is_modem;
$a = $PortObj->can_rtscts;
$a = $PortObj->can_xonxoff;
$a = $PortObj->can_xon_char;
$a = $PortObj->can_spec_char;
$a = $PortObj->can_interval_timeout;
$a = $PortObj->can_total_timeout;
 
# list output capabilities
($rmax, $wmax) = $PortObj->buffer_max;
($rbuf, $wbuf) = $PortObj->are_buffers; # current
@choices = $PortObj->are_baudrate; # legal values
@choices = $PortObj->are_handshake;
@choices = $PortObj->are_parity;
@choices = $PortObj->are_databits;
@choices = $PortObj->are_stopbits;
 
=head2 Configuration Methods
 
# most methods can be called two ways:
$PortObj->is_handshake("xoff"); # set parameter
$flowcontrol = $PortObj->is_handshake; # current value (scalar)
 
# similar
$PortObj->is_baudrate(9600);
$PortObj->is_parity("odd");
$PortObj->is_databits(8);
$PortObj->is_stopbits(1);
$PortObj->debug_comm(0);
$PortObj->is_xon_limit(100); # bytes left in buffer
$PortObj->is_xoff_limit(100); # space left in buffer
$PortObj->is_xon_char(0x11);
$PortObj->is_xoff_char(0x13);
$PortObj->is_eof_char(0x0);
$PortObj->is_event_char(0x0);
$PortObj->is_error_char(0); # for parity errors
 
$rbuf = $PortObj->is_read_buf; # read_only except internal use
$wbuf = $PortObj->is_write_buf;
$size = $PortObj->internal_buffer;
 
$PortObj->is_buffers(4096, 4096); # read, write
# returns current in list context
 
$PortObj->is_read_interval(100); # max time between read char (millisec)
$PortObj->is_read_char_time(5); # avg time between read char
$PortObj->is_read_const_time(100); # total = (avg * bytes) + const
$PortObj->is_write_char_time(5);
$PortObj->is_write_const_time(100);
 
$PortObj->is_binary(T); # just say Yes (Win 3.x option)
$PortObj->is_parity_enable(F); # faults during input
 
=head2 Operating Methods
 
($BlockingFlags, $InBytes, $OutBytes, $LatchErrorFlags) = $PortObj->is_status
|| warn "could not get port status\n";
 
$ClearedErrorFlags = $PortObj->reset_error;
# The API resets errors when reading status, $LatchErrorFlags
# is all $ErrorFlags since they were last explicitly cleared
 
if ($BlockingFlags) { warn "Port is blocked"; }
if ($BlockingFlags & BM_fCtsHold) { warn "Waiting for CTS"; }
if ($LatchErrorFlags & CE_FRAME) { warn "Framing Error"; }
 
Additional useful constants may be exported eventually.
 
$count_in = $PortObj->read_bg($InBytes);
($done, $count_in, $string_in) = $PortObj->read_done(1);
# background read with wait until done
 
$count_out = $PortObj->write_bg($output_string); # background write
($done, $count_out) = $PortObj->write_done(0);
 
$PortObj->suspend_tx; # output from write buffer
$PortObj->resume_tx;
$PortObj->xmit_imm_char(0x03); # bypass buffer (and suspend)
 
$PortObj->xoff_active; # simulate received xoff
$PortObj->xon_active; # simulate received xon
 
$PortObj->purge_all;
$PortObj->purge_rx;
$PortObj->purge_tx;
 
# controlling outputs from the port
$PortObj->dtr_active(T); # sends outputs direct to hardware
$PortObj->rts_active(Yes); # returns status of API call
$PortObj->break_active(N); # NOT state of bit
 
$PortObj->pulse_break_on($milliseconds); # off version is implausible
$PortObj->pulse_rts_on($milliseconds);
$PortObj->pulse_rts_off($milliseconds);
$PortObj->pulse_dtr_on($milliseconds);
$PortObj->pulse_dtr_off($milliseconds);
# sets_bit, delays, resets_bit, delays
# pulse_xxx methods not supported on Perl 5.004
 
$ModemStatus = $PortObj->is_modemlines;
if ($ModemStatus & $PortObj->MS_RLSD_ON) { print "carrier detected"; }
 
$PortObj->close || die;
# "undef $PortObj" preferred unless reopening port
# "close" should precede "undef" if both used
 
=head1 DESCRIPTION
 
This provides fairly low-level access to the Win32 System API calls
dealing with serial ports.
 
Uses features of the Win32 API to implement non-blocking I/O, serial
parameter setting, event-loop operation, and enhanced error handling.
 
To pass in C<NULL> as the pointer to an optional buffer, pass in C<$null=0>.
This is expected to change to an empty list reference, C<[]>, when Perl
supports that form in this usage.
 
Beyond raw access to the API calls and related constants, this module
will eventually handle smart buffer allocation and translation of return
codes.
 
=head2 Initialization
 
The constructor is B<new> with a F<PortName> (as the Registry
knows it) specified. This will do a B<CreateFile>, get the available
options and capabilities via the Win32 API, and create the object.
The port is not yet ready for read/write access. First, the desired
I<parameter settings> must be established. Since these are tuning
constants for an underlying hardware driver in the Operating System,
they should all checked for validity by the method calls that set them.
The B<initialize> method takes a list of required parameters and confirms
they have been set. For others, it will attempt to deduce defaults from
the hardware or from other parameters. The B<initialize> method returns
the number of faults (zero if the port is setup ok). The B<update_DCB>
method writes a new I<Device Control Block> to complete the startup and
allow the port to be used. Ports are opened for binary transfers. A
separate C<binmode> is not needed. The USER must release the object
if B<initialize> or B<update_DCB> does not succeed.
 
Version 0.15 adds an optional C<$quiet> parameter to B<new>. Failure
to open a port prints a error message to STDOUT by default. Since only
one application at a time can "own" the port, one source of failure was
"port in use". There was previously no way to check this without getting
a "fail message". Setting C<$quiet> disables this built-in message. It
also returns 0 instead of C<undef> if the port is unavailable (still FALSE,
used for testing this condition - other faults may still return C<undef>).
Use of C<$quiet> only applies to B<new>.
 
The fault checking in B<initialize> consists in verifying an I<_N_$item>
internal variable exists for each I<$item> in the input list. The
I<_N_$item> is created for each parameter that is set either directly
or by default. A derived class must create the I<_N_$items> for any
varibles it adds to the base class if it wants B<initialize> to check
them. Win32API::CommPort supports the following:
 
$item _N_$item setting method
------ --------- --------------
BAUD "_N_BAUD" is_baudrate
BINARY "_N_BINARY" is_binary
DATA "_N_DATA" is_databits
EOFCHAR "_N_EOFCHAR" is_eof_char
ERRCHAR "_N_ERRCHAR" is_error_char
EVTCHAR "_N_EVTCHAR" is_event_char
HSHAKE "_N_HSHAKE" is_handshake
PARITY "_N_PARITY" is_parity
PARITY_EN "_N_PARITY_EN" is_parity_enable
RCONST "_N_RCONST" is_read_const_time
READBUF "_N_READBUF" is_read_buf
RINT "_N_RINT" is_read_interval
RTOT "_N_RTOT" is_read_char_time
STOP "_N_STOP" is_stopbits
WCONST "_N_WCONST" is_write_const_time
WRITEBUF "_N_WRITEBUF" is_write_buf
WTOT "_N_WTOT" is_write_char_time
XOFFCHAR "_N_XOFFCHAR" is_xoff_char
XOFFLIM "_N_XOFFLIM" is_xoff_limit
XONCHAR "_N_XONCHAR" is_xon_char
XONLIM "_N_XONLIM" is_xon_limit
 
Some individual parameters (eg. baudrate) can be changed after the
initialization is completed. These will automatically update the
I<Device Control Block> as required. The I<init_done> method indicates
when I<initialize> has completed successfully.
 
 
$PortObj = new Win32API::CommPort ($PortName, $quiet)
|| die "Can't open $PortName: $^E\n"; # $quiet is optional
 
if $PortObj->can_databits { $PortObj->is_databits(8) };
$PortObj->is_baudrate(9600);
$PortObj->is_parity("none");
$PortObj->is_stopbits(1);
$PortObj->is_handshake("rts");
$PortObj->is_buffers(4096, 4096);
$PortObj->dtr_active(T);
 
@required = qw( BAUD DATA STOP PARITY );
$PortObj->initialize(@required) || undef $PortObj;
 
$PortObj->dtr_active(f);
$PortObj->is_baudrate(300);
 
$PortObj->close || die;
# "undef $PortObj" preferred unless reopening port
# "close" should precede "undef" if both used
 
undef $PortObj; # closes port AND frees memory in perl
 
The F<PortName> maps to both the Registry I<Device Name> and the
I<Properties> associated with that device. A single I<Physical> port
can be accessed using two or more I<Device Names>. But the options
and setup data will differ significantly in the two cases. A typical
example is a Modem on port "COM2". Both of these F<PortNames> open
the same I<Physical> hardware:
 
$P1 = new Win32API::CommPort ("COM2");
 
$P2 = new Win32API::CommPort ("\\\\.\\Nanohertz Modem model K-9");
 
$P1 is a "generic" serial port. $P2 includes all of $P1 plus a variety
of modem-specific added options and features. The "raw" API calls return
different size configuration structures in the two cases. Win32 uses the
"\\.\" prefix to identify "named" devices. Since both names use the same
I<Physical> hardware, they can not both be used at the same time. The OS
will complain. Consider this A Good Thing.
 
Version 0.16 adds B<pulse> methods for the I<RTS, BREAK, and DTR> bits. The
B<pulse> methods assume the bit is in the opposite state when the method
is called. They set the requested state, delay the specified number of
milliseconds, set the opposite state, and again delay the specified time.
These methods are designed to support devices, such as the X10 "FireCracker"
control and some modems, which require pulses on these lines to signal
specific events or data. Since the 5.00402 Perl distribution from CPAN does
not support sub-second time delays readily, these methods are not supported
on that version of Perl.
 
$PortObj->pulse_break_on($milliseconds);
$PortObj->pulse_rts_on($milliseconds);
$PortObj->pulse_rts_off($milliseconds);
$PortObj->pulse_dtr_on($milliseconds);
$PortObj->pulse_dtr_off($milliseconds);
 
Version 0.16 also adds I<experimental> support for the rest of the option bits
available through the I<Device Control Block>. They have not been extensively
tested and these settings are NOT saved in the B<configuration file> by
I<Win32::SerialPort>. Please let me know if one does not work as advertised.
[Win32 API bit designation]
 
$PortObj->ignore_null(0); # discard \000 bytes on input [fNull]
 
$PortObj->ignore_no_dsr(0); # discard input bytes unless DSR
# [fDsrSensitivity]
 
$PortObj->subst_pe_char(0); # replace parity errors with B<is_error_char>
# when B<is_parity_enable> [fErrorChar]
 
$PortObj->abort_on_error(0); # cancel read/write [fAbortOnError]
 
# next one set by $PortObj->is_handshake("dtr");
$PortObj->output_dsr(0); # use DSR handshake on output [fOutxDsrFlow]
 
# next one set by $PortObj->is_handshake("rts");
$PortObj->output_cts(0); # use CTS handshake on output [fOutxCtsFlow]
 
# next two set by $PortObj->is_handshake("xoff");
$PortObj->input_xoff(0); # use Xon/Xoff handshake on input [fInX]
$PortObj->output_xoff(0); # use Xon/Xoff handshake on output [fOutX]
 
$PortObj->tx_on_xoff(0); # continue output even after input xoff sent
# [fTXContinueOnXoff]
 
The B<get_tick_count> method is a wrapper around the I<Win32::GetTickCount()>
function. It matches a corresponding method in I<Device::SerialPort> which
does not have access to the I<Win32::> namespace. It still returns time
in milliseconds - but can be used in cross-platform scripts.
 
=head2 Configuration and Capability Methods
 
The Win32 Serial Comm API provides extensive information concerning
the capabilities and options available for a specific port (and
instance). "Modem" ports have different capabilties than "RS-232"
ports - even if they share the same Hardware. Many traditional modem
actions are handled via TAPI. "Fax" ports have another set of options -
and are accessed via MAPI. Yet many of the same low-level API commands
and data structures are "common" to each type ("Modem" is implemented
as an "RS-232" superset). In addition, Win95 supports a variety of
legacy hardware (e.g fixed 134.5 baud) while WinNT has hooks for ISDN,
16-data-bit paths, and 256Kbaud.
 
=over 8
 
Binary selections will accept as I<true> any of the following:
C<("YES", "Y", "ON", "TRUE", "T", "1", 1)> (upper/lower/mixed case)
Anything else is I<false>.
 
There are a large number of possible configuration and option parameters.
To facilitate checking option validity in scripts, most configuration
methods can be used in two different ways:
 
=item method called with an argument
 
The parameter is set to the argument, if valid. An invalid argument
returns I<false> (undef) and the parameter is unchanged. After B<init_done>,
the port will be updated immediately if allowed. Otherwise, the value
will be applied when B<update_DCB> is called.
 
=item method called with no argument in scalar context
 
The current value is returned. If the value is not initialized either
directly or by default, return "undef" which will parse to I<false>.
For binary selections (true/false), return the current value. All
current values from "multivalue" selections will parse to I<true>.
Current values may differ from requested values until B<init_done>.
There is no way to see requests which have not yet been applied.
Setting the same parameter again overwrites the first request. Test
the return value of the setting method to check "success".
 
=item Asynchronous (Background) I/O
 
This version now handles Polling (do if Ready), Synchronous (block until
Ready), and Asynchronous Modes (begin and test if Ready) with the timeout
choices provided by the API. No effort has yet been made to interact with
Windows events. But background I/O has been used successfully with the
Perl Tk modules and callbacks from the event loop.
 
=item Timeouts
 
The API provides two timing models. The first applies only to reading and
essentially determines I<Read Not Ready> by checking the time between
consecutive characters. The B<ReadFile> operation returns if that time
exceeds the value set by B<is_read_interval>. It does this by timestamping
each character. It appears that at least one character must by received in
I<every> B<read> I<call to the API> to initialize the mechanism. The timer
is then reset by each succeeding character. If no characters are received,
the read will block indefinitely.
 
Setting B<is_read_interval> to C<0xffffffff> will do a non-blocking read.
The B<ReadFile> returns immediately whether or not any characters are
actually read. This replicates the behavior of the API.
 
The other model defines the total time allowed to complete the operation.
A fixed overhead time is added to the product of bytes and per_byte_time.
A wide variety of timeout options can be defined by selecting the three
parameters: fixed, each, and size.
 
Read_Total = B<is_read_const_time> + (B<is_read_char_time> * bytes_to_read)
 
Write_Total = B<is_write_const_time> + (B<is_write_char_time> * bytes_to_write)
 
When reading a known number of characters, the I<Read_Total> mechanism is
recommended. This mechanism I<MUST> be used with
I<Win32::SerialPort tied FileHandles> because the tie methods can make
multiple internal API calls. The I<Read_Interval> mechanism is suitable for
a B<read_bg> method that expects a response of variable or unknown size. You
should then also set a long I<Read_Total> timeout as a "backup" in case
no bytes are received.
 
=back
 
=head2 Exports
 
Nothing is exported by default. The following tags can be used to have
large sets of symbols exported:
 
=over 4
 
=item :PARAM
 
Utility subroutines and constants for parameter setting and test:
 
LONGsize SHORTsize nocarp yes_true
OS_Error internal_buffer
 
=item :STAT
 
Serial communications status constants. Included are the constants for
ascertaining why a transmission is blocked:
 
BM_fCtsHold BM_fDsrHold BM_fRlsdHold BM_fXoffHold
BM_fXoffSent BM_fEof BM_fTxim BM_AllBits
 
Which incoming bits are active:
 
MS_CTS_ON MS_DSR_ON MS_RING_ON MS_RLSD_ON
 
What hardware errors have been detected:
 
CE_RXOVER CE_OVERRUN CE_RXPARITY CE_FRAME
CE_BREAK CE_TXFULL CE_MODE
 
Offsets into the array returned by B<status:>
 
ST_BLOCK ST_INPUT ST_OUTPUT ST_ERROR
 
=item :RAW
 
The constants and wrapper methods for low-level API calls. Details of
these methods may change with testing. Some may be inherited from
Win32API::File when that becomes available.
 
$result=ClearCommError($handle, $Error_BitMask_p, $CommStatus);
$result=ClearCommBreak($handle);
$result=SetCommBreak($handle);
$result=GetCommModemStatus($handle, $ModemStatus);
$result=GetCommProperties($handle, $CommProperties);
$result=GetCommState($handle, $DCB_Buffer);
$result=SetCommState($handle, $DCB_Buffer);
$result=SetupComm($handle, $in_buf_size, $out_buf_size);
$result=ReadFile($handle, $buffer, $wanted, $got, $template);
$result=WriteFile($handle, $buffer, $size, $count, $template);
 
$result=GetCommTimeouts($handle, $CommTimeOuts);
$result=SetCommTimeouts($handle, $CommTimeOuts);
$result=EscapeCommFunction($handle, $Func_ID);
$result=GetCommConfig($handle, $CommConfig, $Size);
$result=SetCommConfig($handle, $CommConfig, $Size);
$result=PurgeComm($handle, $flags);
 
$result=GetCommMask($handle, $Event_Bitmask);
$result=SetCommMask($handle, $Event_Bitmask);
$hEvent=CreateEvent($security, $reset_req, $initial, $name);
$handle=CreateFile($file, $access, $share, $security,
$creation, $flags, $template);
$result=CloseHandle($handle);
$result=ResetEvent($hEvent);
$result=TransmitCommChar($handle, $char);
$result=WaitCommEvent($handle, $Event_Bitmask, $lpOverlapped);
$result=GetOverlappedResult($handle, $lpOverlapped, $count, $bool);
 
Flags used by B<PurgeComm:>
 
PURGE_TXABORT PURGE_RXABORT PURGE_TXCLEAR PURGE_RXCLEAR
 
Function IDs used by EscapeCommFunction:
 
SETXOFF SETXON SETRTS CLRRTS
SETDTR CLRDTR SETBREAK CLRBREAK
 
Events used by B<WaitCommEvent:>
 
EV_RXCHAR EV_RXFLAG EV_TXEMPTY EV_CTS
EV_DSR EV_RLSD EV_BREAK EV_ERR
EV_RING EV_PERR EV_RX80FULL EV_EVENT1
EV_EVENT2
 
Errors specific to B<GetOverlappedResult:>
 
ERROR_IO_INCOMPLETE ERROR_IO_PENDING
 
=item :COMMPROP
 
The constants for the I<CommProperties structure> returned by
B<GetCommProperties>. Included mostly for completeness.
 
BAUD_USER BAUD_075 BAUD_110 BAUD_134_5
BAUD_150 BAUD_300 BAUD_600 BAUD_1200
BAUD_1800 BAUD_2400 BAUD_4800 BAUD_7200
BAUD_9600 BAUD_14400 BAUD_19200 BAUD_38400
BAUD_56K BAUD_57600 BAUD_115200 BAUD_128K
 
PST_FAX PST_LAT PST_MODEM PST_PARALLELPORT
PST_RS232 PST_RS422 PST_X25 PST_NETWORK_BRIDGE
PST_RS423 PST_RS449 PST_SCANNER PST_TCPIP_TELNET
PST_UNSPECIFIED
 
PCF_INTTIMEOUTS PCF_PARITY_CHECK PCF_16BITMODE
PCF_DTRDSR PCF_SPECIALCHARS PCF_RLSD
PCF_RTSCTS PCF_SETXCHAR PCF_TOTALTIMEOUTS
PCF_XONXOFF
 
SP_BAUD SP_DATABITS SP_HANDSHAKING SP_PARITY
SP_RLSD SP_STOPBITS SP_SERIALCOMM SP_PARITY_CHECK
 
DATABITS_5 DATABITS_6 DATABITS_7 DATABITS_8
DATABITS_16 DATABITS_16X
 
STOPBITS_10 STOPBITS_15 STOPBITS_20
 
PARITY_SPACE PARITY_NONE PARITY_ODD PARITY_EVEN
PARITY_MARK
 
COMMPROP_INITIALIZED
 
=item :DCB
 
The constants for the I<Device Control Block> returned by B<GetCommState>
and updated by B<SetCommState>. Again, included mostly for completeness.
But there are some combinations of "FM_f" settings which are not currently
supported by high-level commands. If you need one of those, please report
the lack as a bug.
 
CBR_110 CBR_300 CBR_600 CBR_1200
CBR_2400 CBR_4800 CBR_9600 CBR_14400
CBR_19200 CBR_38400 CBR_56000 CBR_57600
CBR_115200 CBR_128000 CBR_256000
 
DTR_CONTROL_DISABLE DTR_CONTROL_ENABLE DTR_CONTROL_HANDSHAKE
RTS_CONTROL_DISABLE RTS_CONTROL_ENABLE RTS_CONTROL_HANDSHAKE
RTS_CONTROL_TOGGLE
 
EVENPARITY MARKPARITY NOPARITY ODDPARITY
SPACEPARITY
 
ONESTOPBIT ONE5STOPBITS TWOSTOPBITS
 
FM_fBinary FM_fParity FM_fOutxCtsFlow
FM_fOutxDsrFlow FM_fDtrControl FM_fDsrSensitivity
FM_fTXContinueOnXoff FM_fOutX FM_fInX
FM_fErrorChar FM_fNull FM_fRtsControl
FM_fAbortOnError FM_fDummy2
 
=item :ALL
 
All of the above. Except for the I<test suite>, there is not really a good
reason to do this.
 
=back
 
=head1 NOTES
 
The object returned by B<new> is NOT a I<Filehandle>. You
will be disappointed if you try to use it as one.
 
e.g. the following is WRONG!!____C<print $PortObj "some text";>
 
I<Win32::SerialPort> supports accessing ports via I<Tied Filehandles>.
 
An important note about Win32 filenames. The reserved device names such
as C< COM1, AUX, LPT1, CON, PRN > can NOT be used as filenames. Hence
I<"COM2.cfg"> would not be usable for B<$Configuration_File_Name>.
 
This module uses Win32::API extensively. The raw API calls are B<very>
unforgiving. You will certainly want to start perl with the B<-w> switch.
If you can, B<use strict> as well. Try to ferret out all the syntax and
usage problems BEFORE issuing the API calls (many of which modify tuning
constants in hardware device drivers....not where you want to look for bugs).
 
Thanks to Ken White for testing on NT.
 
=head1 KNOWN LIMITATIONS
 
The current version of the module has been designed for testing using
the ActiveState and Core (GS 5.004_02) ports of Perl for Win32 without
requiring a compiler or using XS. In every case, compatibility has been
selected over performance. Since everything is (sometimes convoluted but
still pure) Perl, you can fix flaws and change limits if required. But
please file a bug report if you do. This module has been tested with
each of the binary perl versions for which Win32::API is supported: AS
builds 315, 316, and 500-509 and GS 5.004_02. It has only been tested on
Intel hardware.
 
=over 4
 
=item Tutorial
 
With all the options, this module needs a good tutorial. It doesn't
have a complete one yet. A I<"How to get started"> tutorial appeared
B<The Perl Journal #13> (March 1999). The demo programs are a good
starting point for additional examples.
 
=item Buffers
 
The size of the Win32 buffers are selectable with B<is_buffers>. But each read
method currently uses a fixed internal buffer of 4096 bytes. This can be
changed in the module source. The read-only B<internal_buffer> method will
give the current size. There are other fixed internal buffers as well. But
no one has needed to change those. The XS version will support dynamic buffer
sizing.
 
=item Modems
 
Lots of modem-specific options are not supported. The same is true of
TAPI, MAPI. I<API Wizards> are welcome to contribute.
 
=item API Options
 
Lots of options are just "passed through from the API". Some probably
shouldn't be used together. The module validates the obvious choices when
possible. For something really fancy, you may need additional API
documentation. Available from I<Micro$oft Pre$$>.
 
=back
 
=head1 BUGS
 
ActiveState ports of Perl for Win32 before build 500 do not support the
tools for building extensions and so will not support later versions of
this extension. In particular, the automated install and test scripts in
this distribution work differently with ActiveState builds 3xx.
 
There is no parameter checking on the "raw" API calls. You probably should
be familiar with using the calls in "C" before doing much experimenting.
 
On Win32, a port must B<close> before it can be reopened again by the same
process. If a physical port can be accessed using more than one name (see
above), all names are treated as one. The perl script can also be run
multiple times within a single batch file or shell script. The I<Makefile.PL>
spawns subshells with backticks to run the test suite on Perl 5.003 - ugly,
but it works.
 
On NT, a B<read_done> or B<write_done> returns I<False> if a background
operation is aborted by a purge. Win95 returns I<True>.
 
EXTENDED_OS_ERROR ($^E) is not supported by the binary ports before 5.005.
It "sort-of-tracks" B<$!> in 5.003 and 5.004, but YMMV.
 
A few NT systems seem to set B<can_parity_enable> true, but do not actually
support setting B<is_parity_enable>. This may be a characteristic of certain
third-party serial drivers. Or a Microsoft bug. I have not been able to
reproduce it on my system.
 
__Please send comments and bug reports to wcbirthisel@alum.mit.edu.
 
=head1 AUTHORS
 
Bill Birthisel, wcbirthisel@alum.mit.edu, http://members.aol.com/Bbirthisel/.
 
Tye McQueen, tye@metronet.com, http://www.metronet.com/~tye/.
 
=head1 SEE ALSO
 
Wi32::SerialPort - High-level user interface/front-end for this module
 
Win32API::File I<when available>
 
Win32::API - Aldo Calpini's "Magic", http://www.divinf.it/dada/perl/
 
Perltoot.xxx - Tom (Christiansen)'s Object-Oriented Tutorial
 
=head1 COPYRIGHT
 
Copyright (C) 1999, Bill Birthisel. All rights reserved.
 
This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the same terms as Perl itself.
 
=head2 COMPATIBILITY
 
Most of the code in this module has been stable since version 0.12.
Except for items indicated as I<Experimental>, I do not expect functional
changes which are not fully backwards compatible. However, Version 0.16
removes the "dummy (0, 1) list" which was returned by many binary methods
in case they were called in list context. I do not know of any use outside
the test suite for that feature.
 
Version 0.12 added an I<Install.PL> script to put modules into the documented
Namespaces. The script uses I<MakeMaker> tools not available in
ActiveState 3xx builds. Users of those builds will need to install
differently (see README). Programs in the test suite are modified for
the current version. Additions to the configurtion files generated by
B<save> prevent those created by Version 0.15 from being used by earlier
Versions. 4 November 1999.
 
=cut
/MissionCockpit/tags/V0.2.0/perl/site/lib/threads/shared.pm
0,0 → 1,616
package threads::shared;
 
use 5.008;
 
use strict;
use warnings;
 
use Scalar::Util qw(reftype refaddr blessed);
 
our $VERSION = '1.28';
my $XS_VERSION = $VERSION;
$VERSION = eval $VERSION;
 
# Declare that we have been loaded
$threads::shared::threads_shared = 1;
 
# Load the XS code, if applicable
if ($threads::threads) {
require XSLoader;
XSLoader::load('threads::shared', $XS_VERSION);
 
*is_shared = \&_id;
 
} else {
# String eval is generally evil, but we don't want these subs to
# exist at all if 'threads' is not loaded successfully.
# Vivifying them conditionally this way saves on average about 4K
# of memory per thread.
eval <<'_MARKER_';
sub share (\[$@%]) { return $_[0] }
sub is_shared (\[$@%]) { undef }
sub cond_wait (\[$@%];\[$@%]) { undef }
sub cond_timedwait (\[$@%]$;\[$@%]) { undef }
sub cond_signal (\[$@%]) { undef }
sub cond_broadcast (\[$@%]) { undef }
_MARKER_
}
 
 
### Export ###
 
sub import
{
# Exported subroutines
my @EXPORT = qw(share is_shared cond_wait cond_timedwait
cond_signal cond_broadcast shared_clone);
if ($threads::threads) {
push(@EXPORT, 'bless');
}
 
# Export subroutine names
my $caller = caller();
foreach my $sym (@EXPORT) {
no strict 'refs';
*{$caller.'::'.$sym} = \&{$sym};
}
}
 
 
# Predeclarations for internal functions
my ($make_shared);
 
 
### Methods, etc. ###
 
sub threads::shared::tie::SPLICE
{
require Carp;
Carp::croak('Splice not implemented for shared arrays');
}
 
 
# Create a thread-shared clone of a complex data structure or object
sub shared_clone
{
if (@_ != 1) {
require Carp;
Carp::croak('Usage: shared_clone(REF)');
}
 
return $make_shared->(shift, {});
}
 
 
### Internal Functions ###
 
# Used by shared_clone() to recursively clone
# a complex data structure or object
$make_shared = sub {
my ($item, $cloned) = @_;
 
# Just return the item if:
# 1. Not a ref;
# 2. Already shared; or
# 3. Not running 'threads'.
return $item if (! ref($item) || is_shared($item) || ! $threads::threads);
 
# Check for previously cloned references
# (this takes care of circular refs as well)
my $addr = refaddr($item);
if (exists($cloned->{$addr})) {
# Return the already existing clone
return $cloned->{$addr};
}
 
# Make copies of array, hash and scalar refs and refs of refs
my $copy;
my $ref_type = reftype($item);
 
# Copy an array ref
if ($ref_type eq 'ARRAY') {
# Make empty shared array ref
$copy = &share([]);
# Add to clone checking hash
$cloned->{$addr} = $copy;
# Recursively copy and add contents
push(@$copy, map { $make_shared->($_, $cloned) } @$item);
}
 
# Copy a hash ref
elsif ($ref_type eq 'HASH') {
# Make empty shared hash ref
$copy = &share({});
# Add to clone checking hash
$cloned->{$addr} = $copy;
# Recursively copy and add contents
foreach my $key (keys(%{$item})) {
$copy->{$key} = $make_shared->($item->{$key}, $cloned);
}
}
 
# Copy a scalar ref
elsif ($ref_type eq 'SCALAR') {
$copy = \do{ my $scalar = $$item; };
share($copy);
# Add to clone checking hash
$cloned->{$addr} = $copy;
}
 
# Copy of a ref of a ref
elsif ($ref_type eq 'REF') {
# Special handling for $x = \$x
if ($addr == refaddr($$item)) {
$copy = \$copy;
share($copy);
$cloned->{$addr} = $copy;
} else {
my $tmp;
$copy = \$tmp;
share($copy);
# Add to clone checking hash
$cloned->{$addr} = $copy;
# Recursively copy and add contents
$tmp = $make_shared->($$item, $cloned);
}
 
} else {
require Carp;
Carp::croak("Unsupported ref type: ", $ref_type);
}
 
# If input item is an object, then bless the copy into the same class
if (my $class = blessed($item)) {
bless($copy, $class);
}
 
# Clone READONLY flag
if ($ref_type eq 'SCALAR') {
if (Internals::SvREADONLY($$item)) {
Internals::SvREADONLY($$copy, 1) if ($] >= 5.008003);
}
}
if (Internals::SvREADONLY($item)) {
Internals::SvREADONLY($copy, 1) if ($] >= 5.008003);
}
 
return $copy;
};
 
1;
 
__END__
 
=head1 NAME
 
threads::shared - Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads
 
=head1 VERSION
 
This document describes threads::shared version 1.28
 
=head1 SYNOPSIS
 
use threads;
use threads::shared;
 
my $var :shared;
my %hsh :shared;
my @ary :shared;
 
my ($scalar, @array, %hash);
share($scalar);
share(@array);
share(%hash);
 
$var = $scalar_value;
$var = $shared_ref_value;
$var = shared_clone($non_shared_ref_value);
$var = shared_clone({'foo' => [qw/foo bar baz/]});
 
$hsh{'foo'} = $scalar_value;
$hsh{'bar'} = $shared_ref_value;
$hsh{'baz'} = shared_clone($non_shared_ref_value);
$hsh{'quz'} = shared_clone([1..3]);
 
$ary[0] = $scalar_value;
$ary[1] = $shared_ref_value;
$ary[2] = shared_clone($non_shared_ref_value);
$ary[3] = shared_clone([ {}, [] ]);
 
{ lock(%hash); ... }
 
cond_wait($scalar);
cond_timedwait($scalar, time() + 30);
cond_broadcast(@array);
cond_signal(%hash);
 
my $lockvar :shared;
# condition var != lock var
cond_wait($var, $lockvar);
cond_timedwait($var, time()+30, $lockvar);
 
=head1 DESCRIPTION
 
By default, variables are private to each thread, and each newly created
thread gets a private copy of each existing variable. This module allows you
to share variables across different threads (and pseudo-forks on Win32). It
is used together with the L<threads> module.
 
This module supports the sharing of the following data types only: scalars
and scalar refs, arrays and array refs, and hashes and hash refs.
 
=head1 EXPORT
 
The following functions are exported by this module: C<share>,
C<shared_clone>, C<is_shared>, C<cond_wait>, C<cond_timedwait>, C<cond_signal>
and C<cond_broadcast>
 
Note that if this module is imported when L<threads> has not yet been loaded,
then these functions all become no-ops. This makes it possible to write
modules that will work in both threaded and non-threaded environments.
 
=head1 FUNCTIONS
 
=over 4
 
=item share VARIABLE
 
C<share> takes a variable and marks it as shared:
 
my ($scalar, @array, %hash);
share($scalar);
share(@array);
share(%hash);
 
C<share> will return the shared rvalue, but always as a reference.
 
Variables can also be marked as shared at compile time by using the
C<:shared> attribute:
 
my ($var, %hash, @array) :shared;
 
Shared variables can only store scalars, refs of shared variables, or
refs of shared data (discussed in next section):
 
my ($var, %hash, @array) :shared;
my $bork;
 
# Storing scalars
$var = 1;
$hash{'foo'} = 'bar';
$array[0] = 1.5;
 
# Storing shared refs
$var = \%hash;
$hash{'ary'} = \@array;
$array[1] = \$var;
 
# The following are errors:
# $var = \$bork; # ref of non-shared variable
# $hash{'bork'} = []; # non-shared array ref
# push(@array, { 'x' => 1 }); # non-shared hash ref
 
=item shared_clone REF
 
C<shared_clone> takes a reference, and returns a shared version of its
argument, performing a deep copy on any non-shared elements. Any shared
elements in the argument are used as is (i.e., they are not cloned).
 
my $cpy = shared_clone({'foo' => [qw/foo bar baz/]});
 
Object status (i.e., the class an object is blessed into) is also cloned.
 
my $obj = {'foo' => [qw/foo bar baz/]};
bless($obj, 'Foo');
my $cpy = shared_clone($obj);
print(ref($cpy), "\n"); # Outputs 'Foo'
 
For cloning empty array or hash refs, the following may also be used:
 
$var = &share([]); # Same as $var = shared_clone([]);
$var = &share({}); # Same as $var = shared_clone({});
 
=item is_shared VARIABLE
 
C<is_shared> checks if the specified variable is shared or not. If shared,
returns the variable's internal ID (similar to
L<refaddr()|Scalar::Util/"refaddr EXPR">). Otherwise, returns C<undef>.
 
if (is_shared($var)) {
print("\$var is shared\n");
} else {
print("\$var is not shared\n");
}
 
When used on an element of an array or hash, C<is_shared> checks if the
specified element belongs to a shared array or hash. (It does not check
the contents of that element.)
 
my %hash :shared;
if (is_shared(%hash)) {
print("\%hash is shared\n");
}
 
$hash{'elem'} = 1;
if (is_shared($hash{'elem'})) {
print("\$hash{'elem'} is in a shared hash\n");
}
 
=item lock VARIABLE
 
C<lock> places a B<advisory> lock on a variable until the lock goes out of
scope. If the variable is locked by another thread, the C<lock> call will
block until it's available. Multiple calls to C<lock> by the same thread from
within dynamically nested scopes are safe -- the variable will remain locked
until the outermost lock on the variable goes out of scope.
 
C<lock> follows references exactly I<one> level:
 
my %hash :shared;
my $ref = \%hash;
lock($ref); # This is equivalent to lock(%hash)
 
Note that you cannot explicitly unlock a variable; you can only wait for the
lock to go out of scope. This is most easily accomplished by locking the
variable inside a block.
 
my $var :shared;
{
lock($var);
# $var is locked from here to the end of the block
...
}
# $var is now unlocked
 
As locks are advisory, they do not prevent data access or modification by
another thread that does not itself attempt to obtain a lock on the variable.
 
You cannot lock the individual elements of a container variable:
 
my %hash :shared;
$hash{'foo'} = 'bar';
#lock($hash{'foo'}); # Error
lock(%hash); # Works
 
If you need more fine-grained control over shared variable access, see
L<Thread::Semaphore>.
 
=item cond_wait VARIABLE
 
=item cond_wait CONDVAR, LOCKVAR
 
The C<cond_wait> function takes a B<locked> variable as a parameter, unlocks
the variable, and blocks until another thread does a C<cond_signal> or
C<cond_broadcast> for that same locked variable. The variable that
C<cond_wait> blocked on is relocked after the C<cond_wait> is satisfied. If
there are multiple threads C<cond_wait>ing on the same variable, all but one
will re-block waiting to reacquire the lock on the variable. (So if you're only
using C<cond_wait> for synchronisation, give up the lock as soon as possible).
The two actions of unlocking the variable and entering the blocked wait state
are atomic, the two actions of exiting from the blocked wait state and
re-locking the variable are not.
 
In its second form, C<cond_wait> takes a shared, B<unlocked> variable followed
by a shared, B<locked> variable. The second variable is unlocked and thread
execution suspended until another thread signals the first variable.
 
It is important to note that the variable can be notified even if no thread
C<cond_signal> or C<cond_broadcast> on the variable. It is therefore
important to check the value of the variable and go back to waiting if the
requirement is not fulfilled. For example, to pause until a shared counter
drops to zero:
 
{ lock($counter); cond_wait($count) until $counter == 0; }
 
=item cond_timedwait VARIABLE, ABS_TIMEOUT
 
=item cond_timedwait CONDVAR, ABS_TIMEOUT, LOCKVAR
 
In its two-argument form, C<cond_timedwait> takes a B<locked> variable and an
absolute timeout as parameters, unlocks the variable, and blocks until the
timeout is reached or another thread signals the variable. A false value is
returned if the timeout is reached, and a true value otherwise. In either
case, the variable is re-locked upon return.
 
Like C<cond_wait>, this function may take a shared, B<locked> variable as an
additional parameter; in this case the first parameter is an B<unlocked>
condition variable protected by a distinct lock variable.
 
Again like C<cond_wait>, waking up and reacquiring the lock are not atomic,
and you should always check your desired condition after this function
returns. Since the timeout is an absolute value, however, it does not have to
be recalculated with each pass:
 
lock($var);
my $abs = time() + 15;
until ($ok = desired_condition($var)) {
last if !cond_timedwait($var, $abs);
}
# we got it if $ok, otherwise we timed out!
 
=item cond_signal VARIABLE
 
The C<cond_signal> function takes a B<locked> variable as a parameter and
unblocks one thread that's C<cond_wait>ing on that variable. If more than one
thread is blocked in a C<cond_wait> on that variable, only one (and which one
is indeterminate) will be unblocked.
 
If there are no threads blocked in a C<cond_wait> on the variable, the signal
is discarded. By always locking before signaling, you can (with care), avoid
signaling before another thread has entered cond_wait().
 
C<cond_signal> will normally generate a warning if you attempt to use it on an
unlocked variable. On the rare occasions where doing this may be sensible, you
can suppress the warning with:
 
{ no warnings 'threads'; cond_signal($foo); }
 
=item cond_broadcast VARIABLE
 
The C<cond_broadcast> function works similarly to C<cond_signal>.
C<cond_broadcast>, though, will unblock B<all> the threads that are blocked in
a C<cond_wait> on the locked variable, rather than only one.
 
=back
 
=head1 OBJECTS
 
L<threads::shared> exports a version of L<bless()|perlfunc/"bless REF"> that
works on shared objects such that I<blessings> propagate across threads.
 
# Create a shared 'Foo' object
my $foo :shared = shared_clone({});
bless($foo, 'Foo');
 
# Create a shared 'Bar' object
my $bar :shared = shared_clone({});
bless($bar, 'Bar');
 
# Put 'bar' inside 'foo'
$foo->{'bar'} = $bar;
 
# Rebless the objects via a thread
threads->create(sub {
# Rebless the outer object
bless($foo, 'Yin');
 
# Cannot directly rebless the inner object
#bless($foo->{'bar'}, 'Yang');
 
# Retrieve and rebless the inner object
my $obj = $foo->{'bar'};
bless($obj, 'Yang');
$foo->{'bar'} = $obj;
 
})->join();
 
print(ref($foo), "\n"); # Prints 'Yin'
print(ref($foo->{'bar'}), "\n"); # Prints 'Yang'
print(ref($bar), "\n"); # Also prints 'Yang'
 
=head1 NOTES
 
L<threads::shared> is designed to disable itself silently if threads are not
available. This allows you to write modules and packages that can be used
in both threaded and non-threaded applications.
 
If you want access to threads, you must C<use threads> before you
C<use threads::shared>. L<threads> will emit a warning if you use it after
L<threads::shared>.
 
=head1 BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
 
When C<share> i